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An efficient regeneration pathway through adventitious organogenesis for the endangered Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels

Abstract

An efficient in vitro propagation system through adventitious organogenesis is reported for argan (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels). Seed germination of two argan genotypes, ‘Mejji’ and ‘R’zwa’, was evaluated under different treatments. Afterwards, the effects of different factors on adventitious shoot bud induction, shoot multiplication, elongation and rooting were evaluated. The findings of this study showed that soaking argan seeds in GA3 during 12 h speeds germination increases the germination percentage. Besides, the use of a sucrose-free medium, without ammonium and with a low nitrate concentration significantly increased the germination percentage. To induce organogenesis, different seedling-derived explants were used. However, epicotyl segments were the only explants capable of regenerating adventitious shoot buds. Highest organogenesis percentage (79.17%) was observed in genotype ‘Mejji’ on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) under dark conditions. Adventitious shoot bud multiplication was performed on MS medium supplemented with different combinations of BAP and GA3. The highest number of adventitious shoot buds per explant (4.0) was observed on MS medium containing 1 mg L−1 BAP and 2 mg L−1 GA3. Regarding in vitro root induction, it was found that combining indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and putrescine is necessary for rhizogenesis. The highest rooting percentage (56.66% in genotype ‘R’zwa’) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L−1 IBA and 160 mg L−1 putrescine, with an average number of 2.74 roots per shoot and an average root length of 1.93 cm. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and showed normal growth and development.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Moroccan National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA) for the financial support.

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IA, RA, GD and FG: planned the study, performed the experiments, interpreted data, corrected and revised the final version of the manuscript; IA: wrote the first draft of the manuscript; FG: performed statistical analyses; DI, ML RM, MAM and RM: assisted in selection and collection of argan material in the field, contributed in planning the study and by scientific advices, corrected and approved the final manuscript; MI: planned and supervised the work.

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Correspondence to Rabha Abdelwahd.

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Amghar, I., Diria, G., Boumlik, I. et al. An efficient regeneration pathway through adventitious organogenesis for the endangered Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels. Vegetos 34, 355–367 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-021-00208-y

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Keywords

  • Adventitious shoot buds
  • Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels
  • Germination
  • In vitro rooting
  • Micropropagation
  • Organogenesis