Agathonos-Georgopoulou, H. (1992). Cross-cultural perspectives in child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse Review, 1(2), 80–88. https://doi.org/10.1002/car.2380010204
Al Odhayani, A., Watson, W. J., & Watson, L. (2013). Behavioural consequences of child abuse. Canadian Family Physician, 59(8), 831–836.
Ards, S., Myers, S., Malkis, A., Sugrue, E., & Zhou, L. (2003). Racial disproportionality in reported and substantiated child abuse and neglect: An examination of systematic bias. Children and Youth Services Review, 25(5/6), 375–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0190-7409(03)00027-6.
Argent, A. C., Bass, D. H., & Lachman, P. I. (1995). Child abuse services at a children’s hospital in Cape Town. South Africa. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(11), 1313–1321. https://doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134(95)00091-L
Badoe, E. (2017). A critical review of child abuse and its management in Africa. African Journal of Emergency Medicine, 7, S32–S35.
Bottoms, B. L., Nielsen, M., Murray, R., & Filipas, H. (2004). Religion-related child physical abuse: Characteristics and psychological outcomes. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 8(1–2), 87–114. https://doi.org/10.1300/J146v08n01_04
Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2014). Thematic analysis. In Encyclopedia of critical psychology (pp. 1947–1952). Springer, New York, NY.
Cluver, L. D., Meinck, F., Steinert, J. I., Shenderovich, Y., Doubt, J., Herrero, R. R., & Gardner, F. (2018). Parenting for lifelong health: A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of a non-commercialised parenting programme for adolescents and their families in South Africa. Bmj Global Health, 3(1), 000539. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000539
Coore Desai, C., Reece, J. A., & Shakespeare-Pellington, S. (2017). The prevention of violence in childhood through parenting programmes: A global review. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22(sup1), 166–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2016.1271952
Currie, J., & Widom, C. S. (2010). Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult economic well-being. Child Maltreatment, 15(2), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559509355316
Dako-Gyeke, M. (2018). Perspectives of key informants on child abuse: Qualitative evidence from northern Ghana. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 36(2), 155–169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-018-0560-6
Finkelhor, D. (1994). The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18(5), 409–417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.07.007
Flaherty, E. G., Sege, R. D., Griffith, J., Price, L. L., Wasserman, R., Slora, E., & Binns, H. J. (2008). From suspicion of physical child abuse to reporting: Primary care clinician decision-making. Pediatrics, 122(3), 611–619. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2311
Hay, T., & Jones, L. (1994). Societal interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect. Child Welfare, 73(5), 379–403.
Levi, B. H., & Brown, G. (2005). Reasonable suspicion: A study of Pennsylvania pediatricians regarding child abuse. Pediatrics, 116(1), e5-e12. http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2649
Levi, B. H., & Portwood, S. G. (2011). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 39(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-720X.2011.00550.x
Levi, B. H., Crowell, K., Walsh, K., & Dellasega, C. (2015). How childcare providers interpret ‘reasonable suspicion’ of child abuse. In Child & Youth Care Forum (Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 875–891). Springer US. http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-015-9302-5
Mathews, B., & Kenny, M. C. (2008). Mandatory reporting legislation in the United States, Canada, and Australia: A cross-jurisdictional review of key features, differences, and issues. Child Maltreatment, 13(1), 50–63. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559507310613
May-Chahal, C., & Cawson, P. (2005). Measuring child maltreatment in the United Kingdom: A study of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(9), 969–984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.05.009
Meinck, F., Cluver, L. D., Boyes, M. E., & Loening-Voysey, H. (2016). Physical, emotional and sexual adolescent abuse victimisation in South Africa: Prevalence, incidence, perpetrators and locations. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70(9), 910–916. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2015-205860
Mikton, C., Mehra, R., Butchart, A., Addiss, D., Almuneef, M., Cardia, N., & Raleva, M. (2011). A multidimensional model for child maltreatment prevention readiness in low-and middle-income countries. Journal of Community Psychology, 39(7), 826–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20474
Moen, K., & Middelthon, A. L. (2015). Qualitative research methods. In Research in medical and biological sciences (pp. 321–378). Academic Press.
Morantz, G., Cole, D. C., Ayaya, S., Ayuku, D., & Braitstein, P. (2013). Maltreatment experiences and associated factors prior to admission to residential care: A sample of institutionalized children and youth in western Kenya. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(10), 778–787. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.10.007
Muhire, H. B., Tuyisenge, L., Hakizimana, F. X. B., Ball, A., & Cartledge, P. (2020). Reporting child abuse in Rwanda: Attitudes and practices of physicians—A cross-sectional survey. PAMJ-Clinical Medicine, 3(131). https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj-cm.2020.3.131.22334
Norman, R. E., Byambaa, M., De, R., Butchart, A., Scott, J., & Vos, T. (2012). The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine, 9(11), e1001349. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001349
QSR International Pty Ltd. (2020) NVivo (released in March 2020), https://www.qsrinternational.com/nvivo-qualitative-data-analysis-software/home
Putnam-Hornstein, E., Wood, J. N., Fluke, J., Yoshioka-Maxwell, A., & Berger, R. P. (2013). Preventing severe and fatal child maltreatment: Making the case for the expanded use and integration of data. Child Welfare, 92(2), 59.
Rwandan Ministry of Health. (2017). Violence against children and youth survey in Rwanda: Findings from a national survey, 2015–2016. Rwanda: Kigali.
Sargeant, J. (2012). Qualitative research part II: Participants, analysis, and quality assurance. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 4(1), 1–3.
Southall, D., & MacDonald, R. (2013). Protecting children from abuse: A neglected but crucial priority for the international child health agenda. Paediatrics and International Child Health, 33(4), 199–206. https://doi.org/10.1179/2046905513Y.0000000097 Epub 2013 Sep 24.
Speizer, I. S., Goodwin, M., Whittle, L., Clyde, M., & Rogers, J. (2008). Dimensions of child sexual abuse before age 15 in three Central American countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(4), 455–462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.03.026
M Stoltenborgh MJ Bakermans-Kranenburg LR Alink van IJzendoorn MH 2015 The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: Review of a series of meta-analyses Child Abuse Review 24 1 37 50 https://doi.org/10.1002/car.2353
Van, H. A. R., Dadds, M., & Armstrong, K. L. (1998). The child abuse lottery—Will the doctor suspect and report? Physician attitudes towards and reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(3), 159–169.
World Health Organization. (2004). ICD-10 : International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems: Tenth revision, 2nd ed. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42980
World Health Organization & International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. (2006). Preventing child maltreatment: A guide to taking action and generating evidence. Retrieved July 12, 2020, from http://www.ispcan.org/resource/resmgr/docs/preventing_child_maltreatmen.pdf