Skip to main content

Influence of control system algorithms on the maneuvering characteristics of the aircraft

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a study of the flight dynamics of a hypothetical maneuverable airplane, the shortcomings of the stability and controllability characteristics of which are compensated by algorithms of the system of improving stability and controllability by introducing a complex border of the permissible angle of attack depending on the flight mode. The research was based on a mathematical model of the airplane as a material point, taking into account the restrictions on altitude and flight speed, g-load, angle of attack, as well as the rate of change of g-load and roll. The purpose of the research is to establish the effect of the operation of the specified control system algorithms on the nature and area of safe execution of the "coup-type" maneuver. As a result of the research, it was found that the functioning of special algorithms of the electric remote-control system, leads to the emergence of areas of the operational range of altitudes and flight speeds, in which there is a significant and sharp deterioration of the maneuverability of the aircraft. Consequently, any "improvement" of the aircraft's flight performance using an automatic control system requires an assessment of the effect of these changes on the aircraft's maneuverability in all possible flight modes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Code availability

Not applicable.

Abbreviations

c xa :

Drag coefficient

c y a :

Lifting force coefficient

M :

Mach velocity

αperm :

Permissible angle of attack

zg :

Coordinates of the aircraft in the normal earth coordinate system along the z-axis

x g :

Coordinates of the aircraft in the normal earth coordinate system along the x-axis

V instr :

Instrumental velocity [m/s]

V :

Aircraft velocity

S :

Wing area

P :

Propulsion thrust

n ya norm :

Normal available overload

\(n_{y\max }^{per}\) :

Maximum permissible operating overload

n y :

Normal overload

n ya :

Normal speed overload

n xa :

Normal tangential overload

α:

Angle of attack [deg]

m :

Aircraft weight [kg]

H :

Coordinates of the aircraft in the normal earth coordinate system along the H-axis

H min :

Minimum flight altitude [m]

g :

Free fall acceleration

G :

Weight [H]

c sec :

Fuel flow rate per second [kg/sec]

αECL :

Engine control lever position [deg]

φeng :

Engine setting angle [deg]

γa :

Roll angle [deg]

γya -max :

Maximum roll angle [deg]

ρH :

Air density at altitude H [kg/m3]

θ:

Angle of slope of the path [deg]

Ψ:

Path angle [deg]

ρ:

Air density [kg/m3

References

  1. Xin M (2014) Unified nonlinear optimal flight control and state estimation of highly maneuverable aircraft. Aerosp Sci Technol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2014.05.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Serebryansky S, Barabanov A (2020) To the question of multi-criteria optimization of aircraft components in order to optimize its life cycle. Adv Sci Technol Eng Syst J. https://doi.org/10.25046/aj050649

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Kulchak AM, Kosyanchuk VV, Zybin EY (2018) Reconfiguration of integrated aircraft control system in case of actuator failures with regard to control constraints. Sci Bulle Mosc State Tech Univ GA. 21(6):65–78. https://doi.org/10.26467/2079-0619-2018-21-6-65-78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Mohamed M, Madhavan G (2020) Reduced order model-based flight control system for a flexible aircraft. IFAC-PapersOnLine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2020.06.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Aircraft Accident Investigation Report (2018) PT. Lion Airlines Boeing 737 (MAX)// PK-LQP TanjungKarawang, West Java, Republic of Indonesia 29 October 2018. National Transportation Safety Committee

  6. Interim Investigation Report of accident 737-8 MAX ET-AVJ, ET-302. Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau 10 March 2019, Ministry of Transport the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

  7. 737 MAX SOFTWARE UPDATE. Overview. Electronic resource. Access mode: URLhttps://www.boeing.com/commercial/737max/737-max-software-updates.page. Access date 02 Dec 2020

  8. Mereau P, Abu El, Ata-Doss S (1985) Parameter estimation of aircraft with fly-by-wire control systems. IFAC Proc Vol. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-6670(17)60610-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Arbuzov IV, Serebryanskii SA, Strelets DY (2019) Forming the technical concept of aircraft power systems of the perspective aircraft taking into account the outside mechani-cal impacts. In: 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ICMAE), Brussels, Belgium, pp 85–88, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMAE.2019.8880969

  10. FAA Updates on Boeing 737 MAX//Electronic resource. Access mode: URLhttps://www.faa.gov/news/updates/?newsId=93206. Accessed 02 Dec 2020

  11. Korsun O, Sergeev S, Stulovskii A (2019) Optimal control design for maneuverable air-craft using population-based algorithms. Procedia Comput Sci. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.02.064

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Majeed M, Singh J, Kar I (2012) Identification of aerodynamic derivatives of a flexible air-craft. J Aircr 49(2):654–658. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.C031318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Cao Z, Jia T, Niu Y (2020) Self-triggered sliding mode control for digital fly-by-wire air-craft system. J Frankl Inst. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfranklin.2020.08.028

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  14. Tomczyk A (2005) Aircraft maneuverability improvement by direct lift control system ap-plication. Aerosp Sci Technol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2005.09.004

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  15. Bucharles A, Vacher P (2002) Flexible aircraft model identification for control law design. Aerosp Sci Technol 6(8):591–598. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1270-9638(02)01197-5

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  16. Balyk OA (2016) Methodology of testing aircraft in super maneuverability modes. Aviapanorama 6(120):34–41

    Google Scholar 

  17. Soldatkin VM (2004) Methods and tools for building onboard information control systems ensure flight safety. KGTU, Kazan

    Google Scholar 

  18. Levitsky SV, Sviridov NA (2008) Flight dynamics. Textbook. Edited by S.V. Levitsky. VVIA Publishing House named after N.E. Zhukovsky, Moscow, p 526

  19. Kiselev MA (2007) An algorithm of an aircraft turn executed with maximum angular velocity. J Comput Syst Sci Int 46(5):815–825

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and publication of this article.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maxim Shkurin.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and publication of this article.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kiselev, M., Levitsky, S. & Shkurin, M. Influence of control system algorithms on the maneuvering characteristics of the aircraft. AS 5, 123–130 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42401-021-00124-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42401-021-00124-8

Keywords

  • Aircraft automatic control system
  • The electric remote-control system of the aircraft
  • Flight dynamics
  • Flight safety
  • Simulation of aircraft flight dynamics