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Structural analysis of three-dimensional wings using finite element method

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This paper investigates the structural behaviour of the wing subjected to the aerodynamic loads during the flight using finite element analysis of wing flexure deformation. In this work, three different types of wing models are established. Material characteristics, the wing structure, and design principles have been taken into account. The assembly of the wing model consists of the thin skin, two spars, and the multi-ribs. The two spars consist of primary and secondary spars. For this study, NACA 23015 is chosen as the baseline airfoil as this airfoil is very similar to the customized airfoil being used in Airbus A320. Two spars mainly bear the bending moment and shear force, which are made of titanium alloy to ensure sufficient rigidity. The skin and wing ribs are made of aluminium alloy to lighten the structural weight; a static structural analysis is applied. Total deformation, equivalent elastic strain, and equivalent von Mises stress are obtained to study the wing's structural behaviour. Furthermore, the modal analysis is then applied. The natural frequencies and the modal shape of the wing for three orders are obtained through the pre-stress modal analysis. The modal analysis results help designers minimize excitation on the natural frequencies and prevent the wing from flutter. According to the results, designers can emphasize strengthening and testing the stress concentration and large deformation area.

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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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This research is supported by the Structures and Materials (S&M) Research Lab of Prince Sultan University.

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Authors and Affiliations



A.A. was the adviser of the work and contributed to the FEA simulations, analysis of data and writing the original manuscript. M.A.M.B.M.Z. simulated the numerical results and drafted the manuscript. S.A.K. was the main supervisor of the work and contributed to the analysis of data and reviewing the manuscript. Y.E.I. was contributed to the manuscript by reviewing and editing its contents.

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Correspondence to Abdul Aabid.

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We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.

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Aabid, A., Zakuan, M.A.M.B.M., Khan, S.A. et al. Structural analysis of three-dimensional wings using finite element method. AS 5, 47–63 (2022).

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