Skip to main content
Log in

Structural analysis of three-dimensional wings using finite element method

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Aerospace Systems Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This paper investigates the structural behaviour of the wing subjected to the aerodynamic loads during the flight using finite element analysis of wing flexure deformation. In this work, three different types of wing models are established. Material characteristics, the wing structure, and design principles have been taken into account. The assembly of the wing model consists of the thin skin, two spars, and the multi-ribs. The two spars consist of primary and secondary spars. For this study, NACA 23015 is chosen as the baseline airfoil as this airfoil is very similar to the customized airfoil being used in Airbus A320. Two spars mainly bear the bending moment and shear force, which are made of titanium alloy to ensure sufficient rigidity. The skin and wing ribs are made of aluminium alloy to lighten the structural weight; a static structural analysis is applied. Total deformation, equivalent elastic strain, and equivalent von Mises stress are obtained to study the wing's structural behaviour. Furthermore, the modal analysis is then applied. The natural frequencies and the modal shape of the wing for three orders are obtained through the pre-stress modal analysis. The modal analysis results help designers minimize excitation on the natural frequencies and prevent the wing from flutter. According to the results, designers can emphasize strengthening and testing the stress concentration and large deformation area.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

References

  1. Abbas Y, Elsonni T, Abdulmajid AA, Khalafallh A, Alnazir M (2021) Structural analysis of a transport aircraft wing. INCAS Bull. 13(1):3–9. https://doi.org/10.13111/2066-8201.2021.13.1.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. ANSYS Inc (2017) ANSYS FLUENT 18.0: theory guidance. Canonsburg, PA

  3. Arun Kumar KN, Lohith N, Ganesha BB (2012) Effect of ribs and stringer spacings on the weight of aircraft structure for aluminum material. J Appl Sci 12(10):1006–1012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Candade AA, Ranneberg M, Schmehl R (2020) Structural analysis and optimization of a tethered swept wing for airborne wind energy generation. Wind Energy 23(4):1006–1025. https://doi.org/10.1002/we.2469

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Epstein B, Jameson A, Peigin S, Roman D, Harrison N, Vassberg J (2012) Comparative study of three-dimensional wing drag minimization by different optimization techniques. J Aircr 46(2):526–541. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.38216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Flax AH (1943) Three-dimensional wing flutter analysis. J Aeronaut Sci 10(2):41–47

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  7. Garmann DJ, Visbal MR, Orkwis PD (2014) Three-dimensional flow structure and aerodynamic loading on a revolving wing. Phys Fluids 034101(2013):27. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4794753

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Garre P (2017) Modeling and analysis of a RIBS and spars of an airplane wing for bending and shear loads. Int J Res Appl Sci Eng Technol 5(2):295–315. https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2017.2046

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Jongerius SR, Lentink D (2010) Structural analysis of a dragonfly wing. Exp Mech 50(October):1323–1334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-010-9411-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Khan SA, Aabid A (2018) Design and fabrication of unmanned arial vehicle for multi-mission tasks. Int J Mech Prod Eng Res Dev IJMPERD 8(July):475–484

    Google Scholar 

  11. Konayapalli SR, Sujatha Y (2015) Design and analysis of aircraft wing. Int J Mag Eng Technol Manag Res 2(9):167

    Google Scholar 

  12. Kumar AR, Balakrishnan SR, Balaji S (2013) Design of an aircraft wing structure for static analysis and fatigue life prediction. Int J Eng Res Technol 2(5):1154–1158

    Google Scholar 

  13. Lorber PF (1992) Compressibility effects on the dynamics stall of a three-dimensional wing. In: 30th aerospace science meeting and exhibit, vol 18

  14. Lu Y, Shen GX (2008) Three-dimensional flow structures and evolution of the leading-edge vortices on a flapping wing. J Exp Biol 211:1221–1230. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.010652

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Obert E (2009) Aerodynamic design of transport aircraft. IOS Press, Delft University Press, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ohmichi Y, Ishida T, Hashimoto A (2017) Numerical investigation of transonic buffet on a three-dimensional wing using incremental mode decomposition. AIAA SciTech Forum. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2017-1436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Raymer DP (1992) Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach (Second Edi). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  18. Vani PS, Reddy DVR, Prasad BS, Shekar KC (2014) Design and analysis of A320 wing using E-glass epoxy composite. Int J Eng Res Technol 3(11):536–539

    Google Scholar 

  19. Vaquer-araujo X, Schöttle F, Kommer A (2018) Static and dynamic load superposition in spacecraft structural analysis. Adv Aircr Spacecr Sci 5(2):259–275

    Google Scholar 

  20. Wang L, Tian FB (2020) Numerical study of sound generation by three-dimensional flexible flapping wings during hovering flight. J Fluids Struct 99:103165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2020.103165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Yang ZR, Jiang Y, Huang C (2015) The thickness of an aircraft wing skins optimization based on ABAQUS. Appl Mech Mater 716–717:679–681

    Google Scholar 

  22. Zakuan MAMBM, Aabid A, Khan SA (2019) Modeling and structural analysis of three-dimensional wing. Int J Eng Adv Technol 9(1):6820–6828. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijeat.A2983.109119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Zhang X, Zhao Y, Si F (2018) Analysis of wing flexure deformation based on ANSYS. In: 2018 IEEE/ION position, location and navigation symposium, PLANS 2018—Proceedings, pp 190–196. https://doi.org/10.1109/PLANS.2018.8373381

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by the Structures and Materials (S&M) Research Lab of Prince Sultan University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

A.A. was the adviser of the work and contributed to the FEA simulations, analysis of data and writing the original manuscript. M.A.M.B.M.Z. simulated the numerical results and drafted the manuscript. S.A.K. was the main supervisor of the work and contributed to the analysis of data and reviewing the manuscript. Y.E.I. was contributed to the manuscript by reviewing and editing its contents.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Abdul Aabid.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aabid, A., Zakuan, M.A.M.B.M., Khan, S.A. et al. Structural analysis of three-dimensional wings using finite element method. AS 5, 47–63 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42401-021-00114-w

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42401-021-00114-w

Keywords

Navigation