Documentation and characterization of fungal diseases in nursery seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in Kerala, India

Abstract

Survey in three different seasons were conducted for collection and characterization of fungal diseases affecting nursery raised teak seedlings in central Kerala, India. Based on visual symptoms and morphological identification, nine diseases were recorded and among them six were first time records in teak from the state viz; leaf blight caused by Curvularia eragrostidis, leaf spots caused by Macrophomina phaseolina and Botryodiplodia theobromae, collar rot caused by Alternaria alternata, root rots caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the investigation and assessment, leaf blight caused by Curvularia eragrostidis and root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum were considered as two major diseases. Cultural as well as morphological characterization was made for each pathogen and molecular characterization was done for two major diseases causing pathogens. Weather correlation with disease occurrence was found to be significant for two diseases. Curvularia causing severe foliar disease was a new record since it was earlier reported as only of minor significance. The shift in disease spectrum due to increased virulence of minor pathogens should be further analyzed based on the changing climate scenario.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial and technical backing provided by Kerala Agricultural University for this research work and for the support and cooperation extended by the Social Forestry Wing of Kerala state Forests and Wildlife Department for the field survey and data collection. The authors also graciously remember the service of Dr. P. N. Chowdhary, National Centre for Fungal Taxonomy, New Delhi for his sincere taxonomic service.

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This research work was carried out with the financial support of Kerala Agricultural University.

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Correspondence to M. Kiran.

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Kiran, M., Gopakumar, S., Reshmy, V. et al. Documentation and characterization of fungal diseases in nursery seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in Kerala, India. Indian Phytopathology (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42360-021-00333-3

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Keywords

  • Teak
  • Nursery diseases
  • Weather correlation
  • Fungal pathogen