Zinc oxide nanoparticles for the management of Ralstonia solanacearum, Phomopsis vexans and Meloidogyne incognita incited disease complex of eggplant
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Two concentrations of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were applied using three methods i.e., spray, seed treatment and soil inoculation for the management of disease complex of eggplant caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, Phomopsis vexans and Meloidogyne incognita. The highest increase in plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents was obtained by spray of NPs followed by seed treatment and soil inoculation. Plants sprayed with 200 ppm NPs resulted in higher increase in plant growth, and higher reduction in galling and nematode multiplication. 15 and 8 days early flowering and fruiting were observed in plants sprayed with 200 and 100 ppm NPs, respectively, over seed treatments. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that ZnO NPs had an adverse effect on cell wall/body wall of test pathogens. Wilt and blight indices was three and five when inoculated with single pathogen and inoculated together, respectively. Disease index was reduced to one when plants sprayed with 200 ppm NPs.
Kew wordsBacterium Fungus Nematode Nanoparticles Solanum melongena
Junior Research Fellowship award to first author by University Grants Commission New Delhi, India is gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest has been declared by authors.
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