Indian Phytopathology

, Volume 71, Issue 3, pp 399–405 | Cite as

Biochemical characterization of superior seedless variety of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for resistance to anthracnose

  • Sarah MurriaEmail author
  • Nirmaljit Kaur
  • Anita Arora
  • N. K. Arora
Research Article


Superior seedless is a promising variety of grape under moist and warm conditions may severely get hampered by anthracnose caused by Gloeosporium ampelophagum (Pass.) Sacc. To evaluate the biochemical reaction of the variety to the pathogen, the study was undertaken at Ludhiana (Punjab) in 2016. The percent disease index (0–9) scale, the morphological and anatomical characteristics were studied in the grape leaves. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total soluble proteins and free amino acid content decreased by 28.16, 3.94, 15.93, 85.86, 45.05 and 46.21%, respectively in anthracnose infected leaves as compared to healthy ones, while total soluble sugars, total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, proline, α-tocopherol, MDA content, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity increased significantly by 9.75, 36.60, 21.80, 36.48, 23.04, 62.75, 90.47, 8.81, 10.49 and 3.12%, respectively. Increase in concentration of these chemical indicates the initiation of defense against G. ampelophagum in variety superior seedless.


Anthracnose Grape Enzymes Phenols Pigments Susceptibility 


  1. Abusaleha Pal AB, Vani A (1989) Changes in sugars and phenols in pea leaves in response to rust (Uromyces fabae) infection. Ind J Hortic 46(2):222–224Google Scholar
  2. Ammajamma R, Patil PV (2008) Biochemical factors imparting rust (Phakospora pachyrhizi) resistance in soybean. Karnataka J Agric Sci 21:65–69Google Scholar
  3. Asthir B, Kaur S, Mann SK (2009) Effect of salicylic and abscisic acid administered through detached tillers on antioxidant system in developing wheat grains under heat stress. Acta Physiol Plant 31(5):1091–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bashalah MO, Sulaiman AAA, Mohammad S (1984) Metabolic changes in the leaves of Solanum melongia affected with Alternaria tenuissima. Ind Phytopathol 37:46–51Google Scholar
  5. Bates LS, Waldren RP, Tears ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bawden FC (1999) Plant diseases. Green World Publishers, LucknowGoogle Scholar
  7. Boubakri H, Gargouri M, Mlik Brini F, Chong J, Jbara M (2016) Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance. Planta 244:529–543CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dhillon M, Kaur R, Basra RK (1997) A rapid method for obtaining leaf impression for studying leaf epidermal system. J Plant Sci Res 13:7–10Google Scholar
  9. Dubois M, Giles KA, Hamilton JK, Reters PA, Smith F (1956) Calorimetric method for the determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghose L, Neela FA, Chakravorty TC, Ali MR, Alam MS (2010) Incidence of leaf blight disease of mulberry plant and assessment of changes in amino acids and photosynthetic pigments of infected leaf. Plant Pathol J 95:140–143Google Scholar
  11. Gurjar PS, Singh SK, Singh AK, Verma MK (2015) Field reaction and biochemical response of grape genotypes to anthracnose incidence under sub-tropical conditions. Int J Sci Nat 6(2):248–255Google Scholar
  12. Halloin JM, De Zoeten GA, Gaard G, Walker JC (1970) The effects of tentoxin on chlorophyll synthesis and plastid structure in cucumber and cabbage. Plant Physiol 45:310–314CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Hartman JR, Kaiser CA (2008) Fruit rots of grape. Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, LexingtonGoogle Scholar
  14. Heath RL, Packer L (1968) Photo oxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 125:189–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hiscox JD, Israelstam GF (1979) A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration using dimethyl sulphoxide. Can J Bot 57:1332–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johansen DA (1940) Plant microtechnique. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirk JTO, Allen RL (1965) Dependence of chloroplast pigment synthesis on protein synthesis: effects of actidione. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 22:523–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee YP, Takahashi T (1966) An improved calorimetric determination of amino-acids with the use of ninhydrin. Ann Biochem 14:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randell RJ (1951) Protein measurement with folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275Google Scholar
  20. Madhavi KJ, Sujatha M, Raja Ram Reddy D, Rao C (2005) Biochemical characterization of resistance against Alternaria helianthi in cultivated and wild sunflowers. Helia 28:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahadevan A, Sridhar R (1986) Methods in physiological plant pathology. Sivakami Publication, Madras, p 316Google Scholar
  22. Michael AE, Erincik O (2008) Anthracnose of grape. Fact Sheet Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Plant PathologyGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohanraj D, Vidhyasekaran P, Kandaswamy TK (1972) Possible role of sugars in the anthracnose disease resistance mechanisms in grapevine varieties. Ind Phytopathol 25:138–139Google Scholar
  24. Munne-Bosch S (2005) Plant ageing increase oxidative stress in chloroplasts. Planta 214:608–615Google Scholar
  25. Poolsawat O, Tharapreuksapong A, Wongkeaw S, Chaowiset W, Tantasawat P (2012) Laboratory and field evaluations of resistance to Sphaceloma ampelium causing anthracnose in grapevine. Aust Plant Pathol 41:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Raghvendra VB, Lokesh S, Govindappa M, Vasanth KT (2007) Dravyaas, an organic agent for the management of seed borne fungi of sorghum and its role in the induction of defense enzymes. Pest J Physiol Biochem 89:190–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Roe JH, Oesterling MJ (1943) The determination of dehydro- ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid in plant tissue by the 2,4 dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. J Biol Chem 152:511–517Google Scholar
  28. Sahhafi SR, Bagheri F, Assad MT (2012) Evaluation of some biochemical responses in resistance of fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes to wheat streak mosaic virus. J Agric Sci 4:5Google Scholar
  29. Salisbury EJ (1927) On the cause and ecological significance of stomatal frequency with special reference to woodland flora. Philos Trans R Soc London 241:1–65Google Scholar
  30. Saud ZA, Razzaque S, Zaman S, Absar N (2000) Changes in some biochemical parameters and enzyme content of guava after infection with fruit rot disease. Bangladesh J Genet Biotechnol 1:85–90Google Scholar
  31. Senthil V, Ramasamy P, Elaiyaraja C, Ramola Elizabeth A (2010) Some photochemical properties affected by the infection of leaf spot disease of Cucumis sativus L. caused by Penicillium notatum. Afr J Basic Appl Sci 2:64–70Google Scholar
  32. Shankar B, Jindal PC (2001) Biochemical resistance of grape genotypes against anthracnose. Indian J Agric Res 35(1):44–47Google Scholar
  33. Sharma S, Kaur S, Dhillon TS, Singh M, Bajaj KL (1996) Studies on phenolic contents in pea genotypes in relation to powdery mildew disease. Plant Dis Res 11:159–161Google Scholar
  34. Sheokand S, Kumari A, Sawhney V (2008) Effect of nitric oxide and putrescine on antioxidative responses under NaCl stress in chickpea plants. Physiol Mol Biol Plant 14(4):355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Siddaramaiah AL, Hegde RK (1988) Mysore J Agri Sci 22:498–504Google Scholar
  36. Sivaprakasan K, Vidhyasakaran P (1993) Phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene for crop disease management. In: Vidhyasakaran P (ed) Genetic engineering, molecular biology and tissue culture for crop pest and disease management. Daya Publishing, Delhi, pp 113–122Google Scholar
  37. Sivritepe N, Kumral NA, Erturk U, Yerlikaya C, Kumral A (2009) Responses of grapevines to two-spotted spider mite mediated biotic stress. J Biol Sci 9:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taware PB, Kondiram ND, Dasharath PO, Sangram HP, Banerjee K (2010) Phenolic alterations in grape leaves, berries and wines due to foliar and cluster powdery mildew infections. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 1(1):1–14Google Scholar
  39. Thomas RL, Jen JJ, Morr CV (1981) Changes in soluble and bound peroxidase-IAA oxidase during tomato fruit development. J Food Sci 47:158–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wheeler BEJ (1969) An introduction to plant diseases. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Zauberman GR, Ronen M, Akerman A, Rot Weksler I, Fuchs Y (1991) Post-harvest retention of the red colour of litchi fruit pericarp. Sci Hortic 47:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Phytopathological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Fruit SciencePunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations