Skip to main content

Aspects of Structural and Multiferroic Properties of A- (15% Gd) and B-Site (5–15% Cr) Doped Perovskite BiFeO3 Nanoparticles

Abstract

This report focuses on the investigation of multiferroic properties of 15% Gd and (5–15) % Cr co-doped Bismuth Ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel method. The synthesized pure BFO has shown to be R3c rhombohedral crystal structure which partially transforms to Pnma orthorhombic crystal structure with increasing Cr dopant in co-doped samples. The crystallite size was found to vary from 68 to 22 nm depending on doping level. SEM images exhibited uniform nanoparticles and the average size of particles was shown to vary from 263 to 114 nm which is comparatively higher than that obtained from XRD results due to agglomeration effects. Ferroelectric tests exhibited a significant reduction in polarization in doped BFO under an applied field of ± 15 kV/cm. In contrast, the magnetic measurement showed a substantial improvement in ferromagnetic properties of the synthesized samples compared to un-doped one. A prominent exchange anisotropy effect was also observed in all the samples at room temperature. In addition, co-doped BFO samples demonstrated a significant reduction in band gap energy from 1.88 to 1.68 eV.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. W. Eerenstein, N.D. Mathur, J.F. Scott, Multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials. Nature 442, 759 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. P.G. De Gennest, Pierre Curie and the role of symmetry in physical laws. Ferroelectrics 40, 125–129 (1982)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. G.A. Smolenskii, I.E. Chupis, Ferroelectromagnets. Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 7 (1982)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. J. Wang, J.B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S.B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D.G. Schlom, U.V. Waghmare, N.A. Spaldin, K.M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, R. Ramesh, Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures. Science 299, 1719 (2003)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. P. Ravindran, R. Vidya, A. Kjekshus, H. Fjellvåg, O. Eriksson, Theoretical investigation of magnetoelectric behavior in BiFeO3. Phys. Rev. B 74, 224412 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. S. Hu, Transition metal oxofluorides comprising lone pair elements, Doctoral Thesis 2014

  7. R.A. Agarwal, S.S. Ashima, N. Ahlawat, Structural transformation and improved dielectric and magnetic properties in Ti-substituted Bi0.8La0.2FeO3 multiferroics. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 165001 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. O. Auciello, J.F. Scott, R. Ramesh, The physics of ferroelectric memories. Phys. Today 51(7), 22 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Q.H. Jiang, C.W. Nan, Z.J. Shen, Synthesis and properties of multiferroic La-modified BiFeO3 ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2123 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. T. Munoz, J.P. Rivera, A. Monnier, H. Schmid, Measurement of the quadratic magnetoelectric effect on single crystalline BiFeO3. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1051 (1985)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. D.C. Arnold, Composition-driven structural phase transitions in rare-earth-doped BiFeO3 ceramics: a review. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 62, 62–82 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. A. Kumar, K.L. Yadav, Magnetic, magnetocapacitance and dielectric properties of Cr doped bismuth ferrite nanoceramics. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 176, 227–230 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. G. Anjum, R. Kumar, S. Mollah, D.K. Shukla, C.G. Lee, Structural, dielectric, and magnetic properties of La0.8Bi0.2Fe1−xMnxO3 (0.0 ≤ x≤0.4) multiferroics. J. Appl. Phys. 107, 103916 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. M.A. Matin, M.N. Hossain, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Slam, Effects of Gd and Cr co-doping on structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 nanoparticles. Mater. Res. Express 6, 055038 (2019)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. M.A. Matin, M.N. Hossain, M.A. Ali, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Islam, Enhanced dielectric properties of prospective Bi0.85Gd0.15Fe1-xCrxO3 multiferroics. Results Phys. Results Phys. 12, 1653–1659 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Y. Yoneda, Y. Kitanaka, Y. Noguchi, M. Miyayama, Electronic and local structures of Mn-doped BiFeO3 crystals. Phys. Rev. B 86, 184112 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. T.J. Park, C.G. Papaefthymiou, J.A. Viescas, R.A. Moodenbaugh, S.S. Wong, Size dependent magnetic properties of single crystalline multiferroic BiFeO3 nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 7, 766 (2007)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. M.M. Rhaman, M.A. Matin, M.N. Hossain, M.N.I. Khan, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Islam, Ferromagnetic, electric, and ferroelectric properties of samarium and cobalt co-doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 147, 109607 (2020)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. M.N. Hossain, M.A. Matin, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Islam, Effects of Gd and Cr co-doping on multiferroic properties of Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1-xCrxO3 (x = 0−0.08). IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 438, 012016 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. M.A. Matin, M.M. Rhaman, M.N. Hossain, F.A. Mozahid, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Islam, Effects of preparation routes on the crystal purity and properties of BiFeO3 nanoparticles. Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42341-019-00140-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Y. Guo, L. Shi, S. Zhou, W. Liu, S. Wei, Tunable exchange bias effect in Sr-doped double perovskite La2NiMnO6. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 175302 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. M.M. Rhaman, M.A. Matin, M.N. Hossain, F.A. Mozahid, M.A. Hakim, M.H. Rizvi, M.F. Islam, Bandgap tuning of Sm and Co Co-doped BFO nanoparticles for photovoltaic application. J. Electron. Mater. 47, 6954–6958 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. M.A. Matin, M.N. Hossain, M.H. Rizvi, M.A. Zubair, M.A. Hakim, A. Hussain, M.F. Islam, in Proceedings of EPTC, Singapore, 2017

  24. H.M. Tutuncu, G.P. Srivastava, Electronic structure and lattice dynamical properties of different tetragonal phases of BiFeO3. Phys. Rev. B 78, 235209 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. A.K. Jonscher, The ‘universal’ dielectric response. Nature 267, 673 (1977)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. S.S. Rajput, R. Katoch, K.K. Sahoo, G.N. Sharma, S.K. Singh, R. Gupta, A. Garg, Enhanced electrical insulation and ferroelectricity in La and Ni co-doped BiFeO3 thin films. J. Alloys Compd. 621, 339 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. J. Liu, M. Li, L. Pei, J. Wang, Z. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhao, Effect of Ce and Zr co-doping on the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3 thin films. Euro Phys. Lett. 89, 57004 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. G.D. Hu, S.H. Fan, C.H. Yang, W.B. Wu, Low leakage current and enhanced ferroelectric properties of Ti and Zn co-doped BiFeO3 thin film. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 2905 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  29. F. Cheng, N. Zhang, F. Yang, S. Wang, G. Song, Effect of Cr substitution on the structure and electrical properties of BiFeO3 ceramic. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 7799 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. N. Adhlakha, K.L. Yadav, Structural, dielectric, magnetic, and optical properties of Ni0.75Zn0.25Fe2O4BiFeO3 composites. J. Mater. Sci. 49, 4423 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. M. Hasan, M.A. Basith, M.A. Zubair, M.S. Hossain, R. Mahbub, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Islam, Saturation magnetization and band gap tuning in BiFeO3 nanoparticles via co-substitution of Gd and Mn. J. Alloys Compd. 687, 701 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. M.A. Matin, M.N. Hossain, M.M. Rhaman, F.A. Mozahid, M.A. Ali, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Islam, Dielectric and optical properties of Ni doped LaFeO3 nanoparticles. SN Appl. Sci. 1, 1479 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. M.M. Rhaman, M.A. Matin, M.N. Hossain, F.A. Mozahid, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Islam, Bandgap engineering of cobalt-doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles for photovoltaic applications. Bull. Mater. Sci. 42, 190 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. M.M. Rhaman, M.A. Matin, M.A. Hakim, M.F. Islam, Bandgap tuning of samarium and cobalt co-doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 263, 114842 (2021)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. A. Matin.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hossain, M.N., Matin, M.A., Islam, M.M. et al. Aspects of Structural and Multiferroic Properties of A- (15% Gd) and B-Site (5–15% Cr) Doped Perovskite BiFeO3 Nanoparticles. Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 22, 543–549 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42341-020-00264-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42341-020-00264-2

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Mutiferroics
  • Polarization
  • Anisotropy
  • BFO
  • Sol-gel