Advertisement

Validating a Motivational Process Model for Mobile-Assisted Language Learning

  • Wen-Ta TsengEmail author
  • Hsing-Fu Cheng
  • Tsung-Yuan Hsiao
Original Paper

Abstract

This study examined the causal relationships among goal orientations, implementation intentions, and self-regulated learning behavior in relation to mobile-assisted language learning. The hypothetical relations among the three domain constructs were formulated in accordance with the theorizing of the Rubicon model of motivational phases (Achtziger and Gollwitzer 2008). The results showed that the instigation of implementation intentions was largely conditioned upon learners’ awareness of integrativeness and a sense of mastery in light of their reasons for or goals of learning English. The study further showed that self-regulated learning could be significantly predicted by implementation intentions. The outcome model showed that self-regulated learning behavior is the most important factor in predicting linguistic outcomes. The results of the study helped understand the different motivation phases of mobile-assisted language learning.

Keywords

Orientations Implementation intentions Self-regulated learning Mobile-Assisted language learning 

行動輔助語言學習動機歷程模式之驗證

摘要

本研究採用結構方程模式檢驗行動輔助語言學習的目標取向,執行意圖和自我調節學習行為之間的因果關係。這三個變因之間的假設關係乃依據Rubicon的動機階段模型理論而製定。檢驗的結果顯示, 執行意圖的啟動大部分取決於學習者對融合動機的意識和精熟學習目標的設定。本研究結果進一步顯示, 執行意圖可以顯著預測自我調節學習行為, 且自我調節學習行為最能預測語言表現。本研究的結果有助瞭解行動輔助語言學習不同動機階段的型塑歷程。

關鍵詞

目標取向 執行意圖 自我調節學習 行動輔助語言學習 

Notes

Funding information

This research was supported by the research grant from the Ministry of Science & Technology, Taiwan (Grant No.: MOST 105-2410-H-011-031-).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Achtziger, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Motivation and volition during the course of action. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation and action. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Au, S. Y. (1988). A critical appraisal of Gardner’s social-psychological theory of second-language learning. Language Learning, 38, 75–79.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1988.tb00402.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker, S. C., & Macintyre, P. D. (2000). The role of gender and immersion in communication and second language orientations. Language Learning, 50(2), 311–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bates, A. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bentler, P. M., & Wu, E. J. C. (2012). EQS 6.2 Software. Encino: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berge, Z. L., & Muilenburg, L. (2013). Handbook of mobile learning. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural equation modeling with EQS: basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cavus, C., & Ibrahim, D. (2009). M-Learning: an experiment in using SMS to support learning new English language words. British Journal of Educational Technology, 401, 78–91.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00801.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clement, R., & Kruidenier, B. G. (1983). Orientations in second language acquisition: I. The effects of ethnicity, milieu and target language on their emergence. Language Learning, 33, 272–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cudeck, R. (1989). Analysis of correlation matrices using covariance structure models. Psychological Bulletin, 105(2), 317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dai, M. H., & Tseng, W. T. (2011). Measuring intention in language learning: a confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Reports, 108, 766–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dörnyei, Z. (1990). Conceptualizing motivation in foreign-language learning. Language Learning, 40, 45–78.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1990.tb00954.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dörnyei, Z., & Csizér, K. (2002). Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: results of a longitudinal nationwide survey. Applied Linguistics, 23, 421–462.  https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/23.4.421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dörnyei, Z., & Otto, I. (1998). Motivation in action: a process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 43–69 Thames Valley University.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Elliot, A. J. (2005). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ely, C. M. (1986). Language learning motivation: a descriptive and causal analysis. Modern Language Journal, 70, 28–35.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05240.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gardner, R. C. (2010). Motivation and second language acquisition: the social educational model. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1959). Motivational variables in second language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266–272.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0083787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes ad motivation in second language learning. Rowley: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gardner, R. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1991). An instrumental motivation in language study: who says it isn’t effective? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 266–272.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100009724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gardner, R. C., Lalonde, R. N., Moorcroft, R., & Evers, F. T. (1987). Second language attrition: the role of motivation and use. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 6, 29–47.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X8700600102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gollwitzer, P. M. (1993). Goal achievement: the role of intentions. European Review of Social Psychology, 4, 141–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gollwitzer, P. M. (1996). The volitional benefits of planning. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The social psychology and language learning: the role of attitudes and motivation (pp. 287–312). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493–503.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.7.493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gollwitzer, P. M., & Brandstätter, V. (1997). Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 186–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Planning promotes goal striving. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: research, theory, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Implementation intentions. In M. Gellman & J. R. Turner (Eds.), Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine (Vol. 9, pp. 1043–1048). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gollwitzer, P. M., & Schaal, B. (1998). Metacognition in action: the importance of implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 124–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hanham, J., Ullman, J., Orlando, J., & McCormick, J. (2014). Intentional learning with technological proxies: goal orientations and efficacy beliefs. Australian Journal of Education, 58, 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Heckhausen, H., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1987). Thought contents and cognitive functioning in motivational versus volitional states of mind. Motivation and Emotion, l1, 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hernández, T. A. (2010). The relationship among motivation, interaction, and the development of second language oral proficiency in a study-abroad context. Modern Language Journal, 94, 600–617.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01053x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hwang, R. T. (2014). Exploring the moderating role of self-management of learning in mobile English learning. Educational Technology & Society, 17, 255–267.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: structural equation modeling with. The SIMPLIS command language. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc..Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kennedy, C., & Levy, M. (2008). L’italiano al Telefonino: using SMS to support beginners language learning. ReCALL, 20, 315–330.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kondo, M., Ishikawa, Y., Smith, C., Sakamoto, K., Shimomura, H., & Wada, N. (2012). Mobile assisted language learning in university EFL courses in Japan: developing attitudes and skills for self-regulated learning. ReCALL, 24, 169–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kramarski, B., & Gutman, M. (2006). How can self-regulated learning be supported in mathematical e-learning environments? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 24–33.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2006.00157.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kramarski, B., & Mizrachi, N. (2006). Online interactions in a mathematical classroom. Educational Media International, 43, 43–50.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09523980500490778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Shield, L. (2008). An overview of mobile assisted language. Learning: from content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction. ReCALL, 20, 271–289.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lu, M. (2008). Effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phone. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 515–525.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2008.00289.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lukmani, Y. M. (1972). Motivation to learn and language proficiency. Language Learning, 22, 261–273.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1972.tb00087.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    MacIntyre, P. D., MacKinnon, S. P., & Clément, R. (2009). The baby, the bathwater, and the future of language learning motivation research. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 43–65). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Masgoret, A.-M., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: a meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53, 123–163.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Midgley, C., Maehr, M., Hicks, L., Roeser, R., Urdan, T., Anderman, E., Kaplan, A., Arunkumar, R., & Middleton, M. (1997). Patterns of adaptive learning survey (PALS). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Miltiadou, M., & Savenye, W. C. (2003). Applying social cognitive constructs of motivation to enhance student success in online distance education. AACE Journal, 11, 78–95.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R. (2000). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory. Language Learning, 50, 57–85.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Noels, K. A., Clément, R., & Pelletier, L. (2001). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations of French Canadian learners of English. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57, 424–442.  https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.57.3.424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Oyserman, D., Terry, K., & Bybee, D. (2002). A possible selves intervention to enhance school involvement. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Paris, S. G., & Byrnes, J. P. (1989). The constructivist approach to self-regulation and learning in the classroom. In B. Zimmerman & D. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: theory, research, and practice (pp. 169–200). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pekrun, R. (2006). The control–value theory of achievement emotions: assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315–341.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., & Perry, R. P. (2010). Boredom in achievement settings: exploring control-value antecedents and performance outcomes of a neglected emotion. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 531–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 451–502). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rueckert, D., Kiser, R., & Cho, M. (2012). Oral language assessment made easy via VoiceThread! Philadelphia: TESOL International Convention and English Language Expo.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2015). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (4th ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schunk, D. H., & Ertmer, P. A. (2000). Self-regulation and academic learning: self-efficacy enhancing interventions. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 631–649). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schunk, D. H., & Rice, J. M. (1986). Extended attributions’ feedback: sequence effects during remedial reading instruction. Journal of Early Adolescence, 6, 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Self-regulated learning: from teaching to self-regulated practice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sha, L., Looi, C.-K., Chen, W., & Zhang, B. (2011). Understanding mobile learning from the perspective of self-regulated learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28, 366–378.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007). A theory of learning for the mobile age. In R. Andrews & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The sage handbook of e-learning research (pp. 221–247). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sheeran, P. (2002). Intention- behavior relations: a conceptual and empirical review. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 1–30). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sheeran, P., Webb, T. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005). The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 87–98.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stipek, D. J., & Kowalski, P. S. (1989). Learned helplessness in task-oriented versus performance-oriented testing conditions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 384–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Stockwell, G. (2010). Using mobile phones for vocabulary activities: examining the effect of the platform. Language Learning & Technology, 142, 95–110.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 213, 217–228.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00129.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tremblay, P. F., & Gardner, R. C. (1995). Expanding the motivation construct in language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 505–518.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1995.tb05451.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tseng, W. T., Chang, Y. J., & Cheng, H. F. (2015). Effects of L2 learning orientations and implementation intentions on self-regulation. Psychological Reports, 117, 319–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ullman, J. B., & Bentler, P. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling. In J. A. Schinka, W. F. Velicer, & I. B. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: research methods in psychology (pp. 661–690). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc..Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vogel, D., Kennedy, D., & Kwok, R. C.-W. (2009). Does using mobile device applications lead to learning? Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 20, 469–485.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zhang, H., Song, W., & Burston, J. (2011). Reexamining the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. Turkish Online Journal on Educational Technology, 103, 203–214.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zimmerman, B. J. (1986). Development of self-regulated learning: which are the key subprocesses? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 16, 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 166–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing students’ use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 614–628.  https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312023004614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2011). Self-regulated learning and performance. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 1–12). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Taiwan Normal University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Foreign LanguagesNational Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Applied EnglishMing Chuan UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Institute of Applied EnglishNational Taiwan Ocean UniversityKeelungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations