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The Phytoextraction by Zea mays of Residual Metals in Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid-Washed Soils

Abstract

Several researches regarding chelate-enhanced soil washing focused primarily on metal extraction efficiency. However, the movement of metals retained inside the washed soil determines the ecological risks potential of the washed soil, and ultimately, the efficiency or setback of the soil washing technique. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the concentration of metals in different constituents of soil as influenced by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-enhanced soil washing and therefore examine the effect of chelating agents on metal absorption by maize plant. To achieve this, an experimental trial was performed using soil spiked with fixed levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn above the levels that would create toxicity. A batch leaching test and sequential extraction process were used to wash the soil. The results of the batch leaching test revealed that the extraction efficiency of the heavy metals was Cu > Cd > Pb > Zn in decreasing order. Metal fractionation revealed that the distribution pattern of metals within the soil varied greatly. The highest proportion of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were in mobile fractions (water-soluble and exchangeable fractions), organic fraction, and Fe/Mn oxide fraction. The organic fraction and Fe/Mn oxide-bound fraction were quite stable. Redistribution between mobile fractions and Fe/Mn oxide-bound fractions occurred during EDTA-enhanced soil washing due to the dissolution of Fe/Mn oxides, and parts of the adsorbed metals that may not be available for extraction during the soil washing. These redistribution processes increase chemical metal availability which may be bio-available even after the soil remediation processes using chelate-enhanced soil washing.

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Acknowledgements

All authors acknowledge their universities for the enabling platform to carry out this research. Kayode Adesina Adegoke acknowledges the Global Excellence Stature (GES) 4.0 Postdoctoral Fellowships Fourth Industrial Revolution and the University of Johannesburg, South Africa.

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Contributions

OA: conceptualization, investigation, methodology, validation, visualization, writing-original draft preparation, and supervision. EOU: conceptualization, methodology, validation, visualization, editing and supervision. FKS and AOA: validation, visualization, writing-original draft preparation. KAA: validation, visualization, writing- review and submit the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Ojone Anyebe, Edward Oniovosa Uyovbisere or Kayode Adesina Adegoke.

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Anyebe, O., Uyovbisere, E.O., Sadiq, F.K. et al. The Phytoextraction by Zea mays of Residual Metals in Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid-Washed Soils. Chemistry Africa 5, 395–404 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42250-022-00326-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42250-022-00326-3

Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • Soil washing
  • Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
  • Redistribution
  • Phytoextraction
  • Metal uptake