Skip to main content

Influence of calcium titanate on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free NBT-based composites


Lead-free ceramics (1-x)Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 + (x) CaTiO3(NBT-CT) where x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 1 are prepared by sol–gel chemical route. The individual phases are combined with weight ratio for composites. X-ray diffraction studies are done for the samples, which indicate two phases rhombohedral and orthorhombic with CT composite. The SEM studies clearly indicate that the grain size of the samples decreases with CT content. From the FTIR spectra, Ti–O band assignments and band positions are identified. Dielectric properties of the samples are exhibiting variations in transition temperature of NBT with CT. Piezoelectric studies indicated high d33 value of NBT for low content of CT. The polarization versus electric field (P vs E) studies show lossy hysteresis loops.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. M.Sh. Khalil, F.F. Hammad, Egypt. J. Sol. 25(2), (2002)

  2. Konapala Sambasiva Rao, Kuan China Varada Rajulu, Bollepalli Tilak, Anem Swathi, Nat. Sci. 2(4), 357-367 (2010)

  3. A. Rajani Malathi, Ch. Sameera Devi, G. S. Kumar, M. Vithal and G. Prasad, Ionics 19, 1751–1760 (2013)

  4. C.S. Tu, I.G. Siny, V.H. Schmidt, Phys. Rev. B. 49, 11550 (1994)

  5. J. Suchanicz, W.S. Ptak, Ferroelectr. Lett. 12, 71 (1990)

  6. J. Suchanicz, J. Kwapulinski, Ferroelectrics. 195, 249 (1995)

  7. G.O. Jones, P.A. Thomas, Acta Crystallogr. B. 58, 168 (2002)

  8. G.O. Jones, P.A. Thomas, Acta. Crystallogr. B. 56 426 (2000)

  9. R. Roukos, S. Abou Dargham, J. Romanos, D. Chaumont, J. Alloys. Compd. 840, 155509 (2020)

  10. S.S. Gaikward, A.V. Borhade, V.B. Gaikward, Der. Pharma. Chemica. 4(1), 184 (2012)

  11. K.A. Muller, H. Burkard, Phys. Rev. B. 19, 3539 (1979)

  12. N.W. Thomas, J Phys Chem Solids 51, 1419 (1990)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. R.J. Roukos, O. Bidault, J. Pansiot, L. Minier, L. Saviot, Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 298 (2011)

  14. R. Ranjan, R. Garg, V. Kothai, A. Agrawal, A. Senyshyn, H. Boysen, J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 22, 075901 (2010)

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Rajani Malathi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Malathi, A.R., Murthy, M.S., Praveena, V.J.U. et al. Influence of calcium titanate on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free NBT-based composites. emergent mater. 5, 241–247 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • NBT
  • CT
  • FTIR
  • Dielectric
  • Piezoelectric