Skip to main content
Log in

A CFD study on the hydrodynamic response of a small-scale ice floe induced by a passing ship

  • Special Column on the 12th International Workshop on Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics (IWSH 2023) (Guest Editor De-Cheng Wan)
  • Published:
Journal of Hydrodynamics Aims and scope Submit manuscript


A Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is built to investigate the hydrodynamic response of a circular ice floe under the influence of a passing ship in calm waters. The ship, mirroring the KRISO Container Ship’s hull design, progresses near an ice floe whose diameter is 30% of the ship’s length and its thickness is 3 m. The ship advances at a constant speed, which is handled by using the overset mesh technique. This study focuses on the ice floe’s motions and the hydrodynamic forces induced by three speeds and three transverse distances of the passing ship. Findings reveal that ship-generated wakes notably influence the ice floe’s motions, with a greater influence on sway than surge. Additionally, the ship’s speed and proximity distinctly affect the ice floe’s motions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Suominen M., Kujala P. Variation in short-term ice-induced load amplitudes on a ship’s hull and related probability distributions [J]. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2014, 106: 131–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Suominen M., Kujala P., Romanoff J. et al. The effect of the extension of the instrumentation on the measured ice-induced load on a ship hull [J]. Ocean Engineering, 2017, 144: 327–339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Li F., Lu L., Suominen M. et al. Short-term statistics of ice loads on ship bow frames in floe ice fields: Full-scale measurements in the Antarctic ocean [J]. Marine Structures, 2021, 80: 103049.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Guo W., Zhao Q., Tian Y. et al. The research on floe ice force acting on the “Xue Long” icebreaker based on synthetic ice test and virtual mass numerical method [J]. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 2021, 33(2): 271–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Hu B., Liu L., Wang D. Prediction of performance of a non-icebreaking ship in marginal ice zone [J]. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 2022, 34(2): 315–328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Keijdener C., de Oliveira Barbosa J. M., Metrikine A. V. The influence of level ice on the frequency domain response of floaters [J]. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2017, 143: 112–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Tsarau A., Lubbad R., Løset S. A numerical model for simulation of the hydrodynamic interactions between a marine floater and fragmented sea ice [J]. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2014, 103: 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Park J. Y., Nam B. W., Kim Y. Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic loads on passing and moored ships in shallow water [J]. Processes, 2021, 9(3): 558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Jiang Z., Li F., Mikkola T. et al. A boundary element method for the prediction of hydrodynamic ship–ice–wave interactions in regular waves [J]. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 2023, 145(6): 061601.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Zhou L., Abdelwahab H. S., Soares C. G. Experimental and CFD investigation of the effects of a high-speed passing ship on a moored container ship [J]. Ocean Engineering, 2021, 228: 108914.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Wang H. Z., Zou Z. J. Numerical study on hydrodynamic interaction between a berthed ship and a ship passing through a lock [J]. Ocean Engineering, 2014, 88: 409–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Lee S. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway [J]. International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, 2015, 7(5): 920–938.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kok Z., Jin Y., Chai S. et al. URANS prediction of berthed ship–passing ship interactions [J]. Ships and Offshore Structures, 2018, 13(6): 561–574.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Pawar R., Bhar A., Dhavalikar S. S. Numerical prediction of hydrodynamic forces on a moored ship due to a passing ship [J]. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, 2019, 233(2): 575–585.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Nandhini V., Nallayarasu S. CFD simulation of the passing vessel effects on moored vessel [J]. Ships and Offshore Structures, 2020, 15(2): 184–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Zha R., Zhao W., Wan D. Numerical study of wave-ice floe interactions and overwash by a meshfree particle method [J]. Ocean Engineering, 2023, 286: 115681.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Siemens P. L. M. STAR-CCM+User Guide Version 2021.3 [R]. Munich, Germany: Siemens PLM Software Inc., 2021.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Lakshmynarayanana P. A. K., Hirdaris S. Comparison of nonlinear one-and two-way FFSI methods for the prediction of the symmetric response of a containership in waves [J]. Ocean Engineering, 2020, 203: 107179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Peltzer R. D., Griffin O. M., Kaiser J. A. et al. The 1989 ONR field experiment: High resolution surfactant film measurements [R]. NRL Memorandum Report, 1993, 7226–93.

  20. Ermakov S., Kapustin I., Lazareva T. Ship wake signatures in radar/optical images of the sea surface: Observations and physical mechanisms [C]. Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, Coastal Waters, and Large Water Regions 2014. SPIE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2014, 156–161.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Somero R., Basovich A., Paterson E. G. Structure and persistence of ship wakes and the role of Langmuir-type circulations [J]. Journal of Ship Research, 2018, 62(4): 241–258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


(This research received other funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.)

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zongyu Jiang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. All authors declare that there are no other competing interests.

Ethical approval: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent: Not application.

Additional information

Biography: Zongyu Jiang (1981-), Male, Master

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jiang, Z., Hirdaris, S., Tavakoli, S. et al. A CFD study on the hydrodynamic response of a small-scale ice floe induced by a passing ship. J Hydrodyn 36, 290–299 (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words