Skip to main content

Effect of Feather Elasticity of Kingfisher Wing on Droplet Impact Dynamics

Abstract

We experimentally studied droplet impact dynamics onto wing feathers of kingfishers. Distilled water droplets with a fixed diameter of 2.06 mm were used as drop liquid and the initial impact velocities of droplets varied from 0.28 m·s−1 to 1.60 m·s−1. Two high-speed cameras were utilized to capture the impact process of water droplets onto the wing feather surface from both horizontal and vertical directions. Two states of the feathers (elastic and inelastic) were considered to study the influence of elasticity. At the entire impact velocity range we studied, regular rebound, bubble trapping and jetting, partial pinning and partial rebound of droplets on inelastic wing feather surface were observed as the initial impact velocity increased. However, only one dynamic behavior (regular rebound) was found on the elastic wing feather surface. The elasticity plays a more important role in the direction difference of droplet spreading than wing feather microstructure. The contact time of water droplets on the elastic wing feather surface was less than that on the inelastic surface within the range of Web numbers from 1.06 to 36 under test conditions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Cassie A B D, Baxter S. Wettability of porous surfaces. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 1994, 40, 546–551.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Rijke A M. The water repellency and feature structure of cormorants, phalogrocorcidae. Journal of Experimental Biology, 1968, 48, 185–189.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Rijike A M, Jesser W A, Evans S W, Bouwman H. Water repellency and feather structure of the Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea. Ostrich, 2000, 71, 143–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Grémillet D, Chauvin C, Wilson R P, Maho Y L, Wanless S. Unusual feather structure allows partial plumage wettability in diving great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo. Journal of Avian Biology, 2005, 36, 57–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ribak G, Weihs D, Arad Z. Water retention in the plumage of diving great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Journal of Avian Biology, 2005, 36, 89–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Srinivasan S, Chhatre S S, Guardado J O, Park K C, Parker A R, Rubner M F, McKinley G H, Cohen R E. Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2014, 11, 20140287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bormashenko E, Bormashenko Y, Stein T, Whyman G, Bormashenko E. Why do pigeon feathers repel water? Hydrophobicity of pennae, Cassie-Baxter wetting hypothesis and Cassie-Wenzel capillarity-induced wetting transition. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2007, 311, 212–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bormashenko E, Gendelman O, Whyman G. Superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves versus birds wings: Different physical mechanisms leading to similar phenomena. Langmuir, 2012, 28, 14992–14997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Reneerkens J. Functional Aspects of Variation in Preen Wax Composition, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Groningen, the Netherlands, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Damsté J S S, Dekker M, Dongen B E V, Schouten S, Piersma T. Structural identification of the diester preen-gland waxes of the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Journal of Natural Products, 2000, 63, 381–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Elder W H. The oil gland of birds. Wilson Bulletin, 1954, 66, 6–31.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Hou H C. Studies on the glandula uropygialis of birds. The Chinese Journal of Physiology, 1928, 2, 345–378.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Odham G, Stenhagen E. On the chemistry of preen gland waxes of water fowl. Accounts of Chemical Research, 1971, 4, 121–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Ruiz-Rodríguez M, Valdivia E, Soler J J, Martín-Vivaldi M, Martín-Platero A M, Martínez-Bueno M. Symbiotic bacteria living in the hoopoe’s uropygial gland prevent feather degradation. Journal of Experimental Biology, 2009, 212, 3621–3626.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Salibian A, Montalti D. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2009, 69, 437–446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Stephenson R, Andrews C A. The effect of water surface tension on feather wettability in aquatic birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 1997, 74, 288–294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Choi W, Tuteja A, Chhatre S, Mabry J M, Cohen R E, McKinley G H. Fabrics with tunable oleophobicity. Advanced Materials, 2009, 21, 2190–2195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Chen L, Xiao Z, Chan P C, Lee Y K, Li Z. A comparative study of droplet impact dynamics on a dual-scaled superhydrophobic surface and lotus leaf. Applied Surface Science, 2011, 257, 8857–8863.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Crick C R, Parkin I P. Water droplet bouncing–A definition for superhydrophobic surfaces. Chemical Communications, 2011, 47, 12059–12061.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Bird J C, Dhiman R, Kwon H M, Varanasi K K. Reducing the contact time of a bouncing drop. Nature, 2013, 503, 385–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Tsai P, Pacheco S, Pirat C, Lefferts L, Lohse D. Drop impact upon micro-and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. Langmuir, 2009, 25, 12293–12298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ramachandran R, Sobolev K, Nosonovsky M. Dynamics of droplet impact on hydrophobic/icephobic concrete with the potential for superhydrophobicity. Langmuir, 2015, 31, 1437–1444.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Pereira P M M, Moita A S, Monteiro G A, Prazeres D M F. Characterization of the topography and wettability of English weed leaves and biomimetic replicas. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2014, 11, 346–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Rioboo R, Tropea C, Marengo M. Outcomes from a drop impact on solid surfaces. Atomization and Sprays, 2001, 11, 155–165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Moita A S, Moreira A L. Experimental study on fuel drop impacts onto rigid surfaces: Morphological comparisons, disintegration limits and secondary atomization. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2007, 31, 2175–2183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Moreira A L N, Moita A S, Panão M R. Advances and challenges in explaining fuel spray impingement: How much of single droplet impact research is useful?. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2010, 36, 554–580.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Deng T, Varanasi K K, Hsu M, Bhate N, Keimel C, Stein J, Blohm M. Nonwetting of impinging droplets on textured surfaces. Applied Physics Letters, 2009, 94, 133109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Yang X, Wang T, Liang J. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic–aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV). Progress in Aerospace Science, 2014, 74, 131–151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Richard D, Clanet C, Quéré D. Contact time of a bouncing drop. Nature, 2002, 417, 811.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Okumura K, Chevy F, Richard D, Quéré D, Clanet C. Water spring: A model for bouncing drops. Europhysics Letters, 2003, 62, 237–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51575227 and 51706084), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFE0132900), the Science and Technology Project of Jilin Provincial Education Department (Grant No. JJKH20170795KJ), and the Science and Technology Development Program of Jilin Province (Grant No. 172411GG010040701).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jing Wang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, C., Wu, Z., Zhang, X. et al. Effect of Feather Elasticity of Kingfisher Wing on Droplet Impact Dynamics. J Bionic Eng 15, 731–740 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42235-018-0061-5

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42235-018-0061-5

Keywords

  • bionic
  • droplet impact
  • kingfisher feather
  • elasticity
  • contact time
  • spreading behavior