Journal of Bionic Engineering

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 57–68 | Cite as

Investigation of punch resistance of the Allomyrira dichtoloma beetle forewing

  • Ngoc San Ha
  • Vinh Tung Le
  • Nam Seo Goo


In this study, the punch resistance of the beetle forewing was investigated to address the ability of the forewing against the external force. The punch resistance of the forewing was measured for different sizes and sexes of beetles using a conventional testing method in conjunction with the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The results showed that the maximum fracture load was measured around 23 N for the female beetle and around 20.2 N for the male beetle in the front-side punch test. Moreover, the fracture load in the front-side punch test was higher than that in the back-side punch test for both male and female beetles. This means that the beetle forewing plays a protection role against external loads. Furthermore, the puncture energy in the front-side punch test for the female beetle (6.91 mJ) was a little higher than that for the male beetle (5.27 mJ). In addition, the DIC results revealed that the first crack occurred along the trachea line and the second crack then appeared in the direction that was perpendicular to the direction of the first crack. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical protection properties of the beetle forewing and offers a good lesson for studying lightweight bio-inspired composite material.


beetle forewing punch test punch energy digital image correlation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF-2016R1A2B4007443). The authors are grateful for the financial support.


  1. [1]
    Chen J, Dai G, Xu Y, Iwamoto M. Optimal composite structures in the forewings of beetles. Composite Structures, 2007, 81, 432–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Chen J, Ni Q Q, Xu Y, Iwamoto M. Lightweight composite structures in the forewings of beetles. Composite Structures, 2007, 79, 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Chen J X, Iwamoto M, Ni Q Q, Kurashiki K, Saito K. Cross sectional structure and its optimality of the fore-wing of beetles. Journal of the Society of Materials Science, 2000, 49, 407–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Chen J X, Ni Q Q, Yasuhisa E, Masaharu I. Distribution of trabeculae and elytral surface structures of the horned beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma (Linné)(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Insect Science, 2002, 9, 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Chen J X, Ni Q Q, Yasuhisa E, Masaharu I. Fine structure of trabecula in the elytra of Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne) and Prosopocoilus inclinatus (Motschulsky)(Coleoptera: Scarabaeedae). Insect Science, 2001, 8, 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Ni Q Q, Chen J X, Iwamoto M, Kurashiki K, Saito K. Interlaminar reinforcement mechanism in a beetle fore-wing. JSME International Journal Series C, 2001, 44, 1111–1116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Chen J X, Dai G Z, Xu Y, Iwamoto M. Basic study of biomimetic composite materials in the forewings of beetles. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2008, 483, 625–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Chen J X, Wu G. Beetle forewings: Epitome of the optimal design for lightweight composite materials. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013, 91, 659–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Chen J X, Xie J, Wu Z S, Elbashiry E M A, Lu Y. Review of beetle forewing structures and their biomimetic applications in China: (I) On the structural colors and the vertical and horizontal cross-sectional structures. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2015, 55, 605–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Chen J X, Zu Q, Wu G, Xie J, Tuo W Y. Review of beetle forewing structures and their biomimetic applications in China: (II) On the three-dimensional structure, modeling and imitation. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2015, 55, 620–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    He C, Zu Q, Chen J, Noori M N. A review of the mechanical properties of beetle elytra and development of the biomimetic honeycomb plates. Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, 2015, 1099636215576881.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Sun J Y, Tong J, Zhang Z J. Nanomechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of elytra cuticle of dung beetle (Copris ochus Motschulsky). International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Changchun, China, 2009, 4277–4282.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Dai Z, Yang Z. Macro-/micro-structures of elytra, mechanical properties of the biomaterial and the coupling strength between elytra in beetles. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2010, 7, 6–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Lomakin J, Huber P A, Eichler C, Arakane Y, Kramer K J, Beeman R W, Kanost M R, Gehrke S H. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material. Biomacromolecules, 2010, 12, 321–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Chen J X, Iwamoto M, Ni Q Q, Kurashiki K, Saito K. Laminated structure and its mechanical properties of the fore-wing of beetle. Journal of the Society of Materials Science, 2001, 50, 455–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    McCullough E L. Mechanical limits to maximum weapon size in a giant rhinoceros beetle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 2014, 281, 20140696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    McCullough E L, Tobalske B W, Emlen D J. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, 111, 14484–14488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Jaekel D J, MacDonald D W, Kurtz S M. Characterization of PEEK biomaterials using the small punch test. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 2011, 4, 1275–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Ha N S, Jin T, Goo N S, Park H C. Anisotropy and non-homogeneity of an Allomyrina dichotoma beetle hind wing membrane. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2011, 6, 046003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Ha N S, Jin T, Goo N S. Modal analysis of an artificial wing mimicking an Allomyrina dichotoma beetle’s hind wing for flapping-wing micro air vehicles by noncontact measurement techniques. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 2013, 51, 560–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Jin T, Ha N S, Le V T, Goo N S, Jeon H C. Thermal buckling measurement of a laminated composite plate under a uniform temperature distribution using the digital image correlation method. Composite Structures, 2015, 123, 420–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Soons J, Lava P, Debruyne D, Dirckx J. Full-field optical deformation measurement in biomechanics: Digital speckle pattern interferometry and 3D digital image correlation applied to bird beaks. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 2012, 14, 186–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Montesano J, Selezneva M, Levesque M, Fawaz Z. Modeling fatigue damage evolution in polymer matrix composite structures and validation using in-situ digital image correlation. Composite Structures, 2015, 125, 354–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Jiang Y, Akkus A, Roperto R, Akkus O, Li B, Lang L, Teich S. Measurement of J-integral in CAD/CAM dental ceramics and composite resin by digital image correlation. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 2016, 62, 240–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Ha N S, Le V T, Goo N S. Investigation of fracture properties of a piezoelectric stack actuator using the digital image correlation technique. International Journal of Fatigue, 2017, 101, Part 1, 106–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Hijazi A, Yardi N, Madhavan V, Determination of forming limit curves using 3D digital image correlation and in-situ observation. International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, Long Beach, USA, 2004, 16–20.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Reu P L, Vangoethem D, Cordova T E. Measurement of steel plate perforation tests with digital image correlation. Experimental Mechanics Annual Conference, Albuquerque, USA, 2009.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Hammer J, Liutkus T, Seidt J, Gilat A. Using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) in dynamic punch tests. Experimental Mechanics, 2015, 55, 201–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Ha N S, Truong Q T, Phan H V, Goo N S, Park H C. Structural characteristics of Allomyrina dichotoma beetle’s hind wings for flapping wing micro air vehicle. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2014, 11, 226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Ha N S, Truong Q T, Goo N S, Park H C. Relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of the wing in insects. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2013, 8, 046008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Mengesha T, Vallance R, Mittal R. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2010, 6, 014001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Yu M, Hermann I, Dai Z, Gitis N. Mechanical and frictional properties of the elytra of five species of beetles. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2013, 10, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Clark A J, Triblehorn J D. Mechanical properties of the cuticles of three cockroach species that differ in their wind-evoked escape behavior. PeerJ, 2014, 2, e501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Hepburn H, Ball A. On the structure and mechanical properties of beetle shells. Journal of Materials Science, 1973, 8, 618–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Sun J Y, Jin T, Chen D H, Lin J B. Micro-tensile testing of the lightweight laminated structures of beetle elytra cuticle. Advances in Natural Science, 2010, 3, 225–234.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Cheng L, Wang L, Karlsson A M. Mechanics-based analysis of selected features of the exoskeletal microstructure of Popillia japonica. Journal of Materials Research, 2009, 24, 3253–3267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Roseland C R, Kramer K J, Hopkins T L. Cuticular strength and pigmentation of rust-red and black strains of Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochemistry, 1987, 17, 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Czapla T H, Hopkins T L, Kramer K J. Cuticular strength and pigmentation of five strains of adult Blattella germanica (L.) during sclerotization: Correlations with catecholamines, ß-alanine and food deprivation. Journal of Insect Physiology, 1990, 36, 647–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Fenton M, Swanepoel C, Brigham R, Cebek J, Hickey M. Foraging behavior and prey selection by large slit-faced bats (Nycteris grandis; Chiroptera: Nycteridae). Biotropica, 1990, 22, 2–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Jilin University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Smart Microsystem Research Laboratory, Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Division of Interdisciplinary StudiesKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Engineering and TechnologySwinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia

Personalised recommendations