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Fungitoxic activities of Citrus limon L. peel extracts in controlling anthracnose of mango

Abstract

The current study investigates the biological activities of lemon (Citrus limon L.) peel extracts against anthracnose of mango fruit caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In vitro test results showed that Lemon Peel Extract (LPE) at 1.75 to 2.5 g/L concentration totally controlled the growth and development of C. gloeosporioides. Mycelial distortion, conidial swelling and cytoplasmic discharged were vividly observed when applied with LPE. The Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC) of LPE for in-vivo test result was 1.75 g/L, and can be used as protective, simultaneous and curative treatment on Mangifera indica L. fruit to inhibit and/or lessen the anthracnose infection. Further, no detectable phytotoxicity nor changes in aroma was observed on fruit treated with LPE (1.75 g/L). This could be due to the phytochemicals and its derivatives present in LPE. On the other hand, lesions, changed in color, aroma and texture was noticed on the untreated mango fruit.

Forty-two chemical components were identified in LPE, based on Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The six major compounds were as follows: oleyl-alcohol methyl ether (27.23%), γ-sitosterol (18.48%), stigmasterol (4.49%), 24-norursa-3.12-diene (4.00%), 3-heptanol,6-methyl (3.50%) and coumarin (3.39%). LPE attributes excellent fungicidal effects towards C. gloeosporioides and can be utilized as an alternative compound to conventional fungicides in the market.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Prof. Young Soo Keum, Prof Se Chul Chun, Prof Do Hwan Kim and the rest of the team of Konkuk University (KU) Seoul, South Korea, Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), Davao Analytical Laboratories headed by Sir Tony Gumapac, and Dr. Brian Lopez for the assistance.

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Correspondence to Mark Anthony Angeles Mangoba.

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Alvindia, D.d., Angeles Mangoba, M.A. Fungitoxic activities of Citrus limon L. peel extracts in controlling anthracnose of mango. J Plant Pathol 104, 939–945 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-022-01080-8

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Keywords

  • Citrus limon
  • γ-sitosterol
  • Coumarin
  • Stigmasterol
  • Anthracnose
  • Mango