Occurence of beet western yellows virus on squash and broad bean in Turkey
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Vegetable crops species from areas of Turkey where beet western yellows virus (BWYV), genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae was previously detected in pepper were surveyed for poleroviruses. Leaf samples were tested by DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR with degenerate primers for poleroviruses, and sequencing. Blast analysis of sequenced PCR amplicons revealed the presence of BWYV in broad bean (Vicia faba) and squash (Cucurbita pepo). These are new records of this virus on these two species in Turkey.
KeywordsBWYV Polerovirus Luteoviridae Genetic diversity
The genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae) comprises 17 virus species based on the 2016 ICTV classification. These viruses are phloem-limited and transmitted in a circulative nonpropagative manner by aphids, including Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae (King et al. 2012), two widespread aphid species in Mediterranean and tropical regions. Poleroviruses are not mechanically transmissible (Lecoq et al. 1992; D’Arcy and Domier 2005). Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) was the first polerovirus identified in Turkey on a range of cucurbit crops by DAS-ELISA (Yardimci and Özgönen 2007). Subsequently, beet western yellows virus (BWYV) and pepper vein yellows virus (PVYV) were recovered from field-grown pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants (Buzkan et al. 2013). More recently, CABYV was reported in broad bean (Vicia faba) (Buzkan et al. 2017).
BWYV, one of the most economically important and widespread viruses of Brassicaceae in the world (Hampton et al. 1998), was first reported by Duffus (1960) in North America under the name of radish yellows virus, (Duffus 1961). This virus causes yellowing and stunting in a large number of crops, including sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), canola (Brassica napus), broad bean and a number of common weed species (Gray and Gildow 2003; Wang et al. 2013). BWYV infection has also been reported in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis (Miguel et al. 2016).
The genome of BWYV is composed of a single-stranded plus-sense RNA, ca. 5.6 kb in length, containing six open reading frames (ORFs), a short 50 nucleotide (nt) untranslated region (UTR) at the 5′, a 30 nt UTR at the 3′ without either tRNA-like or poly(A) structure, and an intergenic non-coding region (NCR) between ORF2 and ORF3, about 200 nt in size (Stevens et al. 2005).
Polerovirus sequences from broad bean and squash were compared phylogenetically (Tamura et al. 2013) with other poleroviruses: (i) BWYV isolates from Beta vulgaris in the USA (NC_004756.1), China (EU636990.1) and Japan (AB903033.1); (ii) CABYV isolates from C. pepo in Spain (JF939814. 1), C. melo in South Korea (KR231946.1), Luffa cylindrica in Shangai (EF063707.1); (iii) turnip yellows virus (TuYV) from Nicotiana tabacum in China (KR706247.1); (iv) brassica yellows virus (BrYV) from Brassica rapa in South Korea (KF923236.1).
Authors would like to thank to Prof. G.P. Martelli for his review and valuable comments on this manuscript. This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (Project No: 113 O 423).
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