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Enhanced energy storage of lead-free mixed oxide core double-shell barium strontium zirconate titanate@magnesium aluminate@zinc oxide-boron trioxide-silica ceramic nanocomposites


Ba0.8Sr0.2Zr0.1Ti0.9O3@MgO-Al2O3@ZnO-B2O3-SiO2 (BSZT@MgO-Al2O3@ZBSO) core double-shell lead-free nanoceramic is prepared by facile protocol. The protocol involves three steps of (a) BSZT synthesis by co-precipitation, (b) coating of MgO-Al2O3 layer through co-precipitation, and (c) ZBSO deposition via sol-precipitation method. The diameter of the resultant BSZT@MgO-Al2O3@ZBSO core double-shell nanoparticles is about 280 nm, and the average thicknesses of the MgO-Al2O3 and ZBSO layers are about 8 and 13 nm, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of BSZT@MgO-Al2O3@ZBSO are tuned by varying the ratio between MgO and Al2O3 of MgO-Al2O3 layer. The results reveal that the grain size increases with the decrease in the MgO/Al2O3 ratio, while the dielectric properties initially increase and then decrease with increase of Al2O3 content. After sintering at 1150 °C for 2 h, the MgO-Al2O3 in the interlayer self-assembled into a MgAl2O4 spinel phase. Thus, fine-grained relaxor ferroelectric BSZT@MgAl2O4@ZBSO core double-shell ceramic nanoceramics (grain size ≤ 300 nm) were obtained. The lead-free core double-shell nanoparticles with Mg/Al ratio of 4:2 exhibit the maximum energy storage density of 0.91 J/cm3 under a maximum polarization field of 28.08 kV/mm.

Graphical abstract

Enhanced energy storage was observed in the lead-free mixed oxide core double-shell barium strontium zirconate titanate@magnesium aluminate@zinc oxide-boron trioxide-silica nanoceramics.

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Support was provided by the Shaanxi Provincial Natural Science Basic Research Project (2021JQ-810), Horizontal Project of Shaanxi Province (2021-KJHX001), Horizontal Project of Shaanxi Province (2022-KJHX011), Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education Special Scientific Research Project (grant number 19JK0035), and Taif University Researchers Supporting Project number (TURSP-2020/14), Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

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Correspondence to Rong Ma or Bin Cui.

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Ma, R., Cui, B., Hu, D. et al. Enhanced energy storage of lead-free mixed oxide core double-shell barium strontium zirconate titanate@magnesium aluminate@zinc oxide-boron trioxide-silica ceramic nanocomposites. Adv Compos Hybrid Mater 5, 1477–1489 (2022).

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  • Core double-shell nanoparticles
  • Self-assembly
  • Fine-grained ceramics
  • Relaxor ferroelectric
  • Energy storage