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Feasibility study for a mini geothermal power plant in the Woulndé area, Adamawa, Cameroon: environmental and socio-economic impacts

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Abstract

This paper unveils a feasibility study for a 5 MW geothermal power plant in the Woulndé area of Adamawa, Cameroon. The objective of this project is to investigate the design of a mini power plant that may produce electricity from the Earth’s temperature while adhering to environmental regulations and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. It highlights some of the socio-economic and environmental impacts, as well as the parameters relevant to the design of the power plant, together with an economic assessment of the project. The design of the geothermal power plant includes two production boreholes and an injection borehole. These boreholes, with a depth of 2650 m, have flow rates of 2 × 67.5 l/s for production and 135 l/s for injection. The utilization of geothermal energy, which is a sustainable resource, complies with global initiatives to mitigate the release of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, the plant’s operation is expected to generate considerable carbon credit revenues, estimated at $457,380 annually, accumulating to approximately $4,573,800 over ten years. These revenues contribute to global carbon reduction initiatives while also supporting the project’s financial sustainability. The utilization of clean, renewable energy sources improves the reliability and security of the energy supply in the region. Moreover, the project is likely to create job prospects during both the construction and operational phases, stimulating economic growth in the Adamawa region. However, potential obstacles, such as the substantial initial capital investment need and the rationale for the management of geothermal brines and gases, are also acknowledged in the study. To ensure environmental sustainability, it is suggested that the Organic Rankine Cycle be implemented. As a result, the feasibility study concludes that the ambitious mini-geothermal power plant in Woulndé is a viable project that will generate substantial environmental and socio-economic benefits. This is consistent with Cameroon’s objectives for renewable energy and worldwide sustainability initiatives.

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(Source: Société pour les Techniques de l’Énergie (ETG) of Switzerland)

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Data Availability

Data will be made available on the reasonable request.

Abbreviations

FCFA:

French community in Africa

CERs :

Certified Emission Reductions

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

EnR:

Renewable Energy

gradT:

Temperature gradient

GHG:

Greenhouse gases

km:

Kilometer

kW:

Kilowatt

kWh:

Kilowatt hour

Ma:

Million years

MW:

MegaWatt

MWe:

Mega Watt Electric

P:

Pressure

S:

Surface

S0x :

Sulphur oxide

t:

Time

T:

Temperature

TequCO2 :

Ton of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent

USD:

United States Dollars

USc:

United States cents

USc:

United States cents

°C:

Degree Celsius

T:

530 °C is the temperature of the steam outlet (turbine inlet)

Q:

Power received by the water to evaporate

W:

Mechanical power on the turbine shaft

Ce :

Heat density of water (4.18)

Cv :

Heat of steam by mass (2676)

qe :

Water flow rate

ηT :

Turbine efficiency 40

ηeff :

Effective efficiency 80

P :

Electrical power 5 MW

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Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.

Funding

The authors did not received support from any organization for the submitted work.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Kasi Njeudjang (KN), André Chéagé Chamgoué (ACC), Abdou Raouf (AR), Alex Stephane Kemnang Tsafack (ASKT), Noël Djongyang (ND), Tchinda Réné (TR). KN designed the study area, interpreted the gravity data by using various advanced processing techniques. AR and ASKT established the objective, proposed the methodology and generated maps. ACC contributed to the geological aspect of the paper. KN and ASKT wrote the first draft of the paper and data supplier. ND performed critics and improved the interpretation of results. TR supervised the work and revised the paper. All authors have read and approved the final version of manuscript. All correspondence is addressed to Kasi Njeudjang.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to K. Njeudjang.

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Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. Ethical approval This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Appendix

Appendix

Mollier Diagram for Steam

figure a

Enthalpy Diagram of R22 Fluid

figure b

Saturated steam table

figure c
figure d

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Njeudjang, K., Chamgoué, A.C., Raouf, A. et al. Feasibility study for a mini geothermal power plant in the Woulndé area, Adamawa, Cameroon: environmental and socio-economic impacts. Int J Energ Water Res (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-024-00288-x

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