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Physicochemical evaluation and irrigation quality assessments of water resources: a case study of Okigwe and its environs Southeastern Nigeria

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Abstract

The physicochemical properties of water in Okigwe and its environs were evaluated in other to determine the factors controlling its quality and changes, accessing its usage for irrigation purpose. A total of 15 water samples were collected including 5 surface and 10 groundwater samples. The water samples were analyzed using standard methods. The results showed that the water is slightly alkaline (mean pH = 7.05) and fresh, having a total dissolved solid value ranging from 8.96 to 28.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity values between 5.15 and 23.5 μS/cm and a mean concentration of 1.011 mg/L and 5.505 mg/L for iron and phosphate, respectively. The mean values of the major cations are in the order of Mg2+˃Ca2+˃Na+˃ K+ and Mg2+ ˃Ca2+˃ K+˃Na+ for ground and surface water while the major anions are HCO3˃Cl˃ SO42− ˃ NO3 and HCO3 ˃Cl ˃NO3˃ SO42−, respectively. Irrigation quality assessment indicated that sodium absorption ratio was between 12 0.23 and 0.35 meq/L (mean values = 0.29 meq/l and 0.25 meq/L), magnesium hazard was between 47.71 and 70.58% (mean values = 54.36 and 52.99%) and Kelly’s ratio was between 0.07 and 0.15 (mean values = 0.13 and 0.12) for ground and surface water, respectively. Piper trilinear plots in conjunction with stiff diagrams revealed two hydrogeochemical facies and three water types. The study revealed that the changes in the water chemistry within the study area were due to anthropogenic activities and that the water was polluted with iron though still within the limits that are suitable for industrial and irrigation purposes.

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Ugbor, C.C., Nwali, O.I. & Ugwuoke, C.I. Physicochemical evaluation and irrigation quality assessments of water resources: a case study of Okigwe and its environs Southeastern Nigeria. Int J Energ Water Res 8, 255–268 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-022-00200-5

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