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Evaluation of the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes using irrigation water quality indices and geographical information systems (GIS) at Patna (Bihar), India

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Abstract

Patna, the state capital of Bihar, is primarily reliant on groundwater to meet its daily requirements, and overexploitation has placed significant strain on the quality and quantity of groundwater resources. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigational purposes can be useful to detect any undesirable change in its ionic composition. Therefore, the study has been put forward with an objective to monitor the current status of groundwater and give a comprehensive account of spatial and seasonal variation in its physico-chemical characteristics and irrigational suitability using GIS-based approach. Sixty groundwater samples were collected seasonally (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) from 20 (twenty) different locations of Patna, Bihar in 2019–2020 and analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics using standard procedures. All the parameters were compared with the Bureau of Indian Standards 2012. Significant spatial variation was observed in pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Mg2+, Na+, HCO3, and Cl between sampling sites, whereas ANOVA revealed significant seasonal differences in pH (p = 0.000), Ca2+ (p = 0.000), Mg2+ (p = 0.000) and Na+ (p = 0.028). The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated with the help of sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, residual sodium bicarbonate, magnesium hazard, Permeability Index and potential salinity. Based on different irrigational indices, all groundwater samples were found to be suitable for irrigation purposes. USSL diagram has classified nearly 75% of overall groundwater samples features medium salinity with low sodium hazard, while Doneen’s plot reveals 98.3% of samples are characterized with maximum permeability.

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The authors are thankful to all members of Environmental Biology Laboratory, Patna University Patna.

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Zafar, M.M., Sulaiman, M.A., Prabhakar, R. et al. Evaluation of the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes using irrigation water quality indices and geographical information systems (GIS) at Patna (Bihar), India. Int J Energ Water Res 8, 241–254 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-022-00193-1

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