Skip to main content
Log in

Multivariate statistical analysis of Vaniyar sub-basin, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu

  • Original Article
  • Published:
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Water quality evaluation is necessary to guarantee that resources should be used safely for drinking, agriculture, and industry. Twenty three groundwater samples were collected systematically according to the standard procedure during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in Vaniyar sub-basin, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. The main objective of the study is to understand the spatial and statistical variation of groundwater geochemistry seasonal-wise. Vaniyar sub-basin lies between the latitudes 12° 11′ 46″ N and 12° 09′ 39″ N and longitudes 78° 12′ 27″ E and 78° 36′ 65″ E covering an area of 982.25 km2. Out of which plain land covers an area of 591.43 km2. The study area is mostly underlain by Archaean crystalline rocks, the majority of which are charnockite. Quartz and feldspar are the most predominant minerals present in this rock formation. Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated formations, as well as worn and broken crystalline rocks, are the main aquifer formation in this area. The physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater analysis findings were compared to the Bureau of Indian Standards’ (New Delhi, 2012) guidelines were used to find out the suitability of groundwater for drinking, irrigational and domestic purposes. ARC GSI 10.1and SPSS software is used to find out the spatial and statistical variation of the study area. From the correlation matrix, TDS and EC showing a high positive correlation toward the major cation and anion indicate that origin of major ions in groundwater samples has occurred from rock–water interaction. Factor analysis of two major monsoons shows that Factor 1 pre- and post-monsoon is having a high positive loading strongly suggests that the geogenic process is the main factor that influences the chemistry of groundwater in the area. Most of the major ions are formed by the dissolution of the host rock. Most of the major cation and anion are fall within the permissible limit and the spatial variation of pre- and post-monsoon indicate a high concentration of an ion in the north and northwestern part of the study area. Fluoride concentration in the study area is high, due to the presence of fluoride-bearing minerals in the host rock. In this location, it is required to remove excessive levels of fluoride from drinking water, and efforts should be done to provide water once the fluoride has been removed to improve the area’s life.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

MSL:

Mean sea level

TDS:

Total dissolved solid

EC:

Electrical conductivity

pH:

Potential of hydrogen

Ca:

Calcium

Mg:

Magnesium

Na:

Sodium

K:

Potassium

Cl:

Chloride

F:

Fluoirde

NO3 :

Nitrate

SO4 :

Sulphate

HDPE:

High density polyethylene

ARC GIS:

Aeronautical Reconnaissance Coverage Geographic Information System

SPSS:

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

Max:

Maximum

Min:

Minimum

Avg:

Average

ppm:

Parts per million

BIS:

Bureau of Indian Standards

μS/cm:

MicroSiemens per cm

References

  • Acharya, S., Sharma, S. K., & Khandegar, V. (2018). Assessment of groundwater quality by water quality indices for irrigation and drinking in South West Delhi, India. Data in Brief, 18, 2019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adimalla, N., Dhakate, R., Kasarla, A., & Taloor, A. K. (2020). Appraisal of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in Central Telangana, India. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 10, 100334.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agbaire, P. O., & Obi, C. G. (2009). Seasonal variations of some physico-chemical properties of River Ethiope water in Abraka, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v13i1.55265.

  • Ahouansou, D. M. M., Agodzo, S. K., Awoye, O. H. R., Balle, R. G. A., & Sintondji, L. O. (2018). Analysis of the seasonal variation of groundwater quality in a highly cultivated catchment, Northern Benin. American Journal of Water Resources, 6(6), 224–234.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • American Public Health Association, APHA. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association.

  • Asadi, E., Isazadeh, M., Samadianfard, S., Ramli, M. F., Mosavi, A., Nabipour, N., Shamshirband, S., Hajnal, E., & Chau, K. W. (2020). Groundwater quality assessment for sustainable drinking and irrigation. Sustainability, 12(1), 177.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • BIS, I.S.D.W.S. (2012). Bureau of Indian Standards. New Delhi, pp. 2–3

  • Brabec, E., Schulte, S., & Richards, P. L. (2002). Impervious surfaces and water quality: A review of current literature and its implications for watershed planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 16(4), 499–514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carroll, D. (1962). Rainwater as a chemical agent of geologic processes: A review (p. 18). US Government Printing Office.

  • Chaurasia, A. K., Pandey, H. K., Tiwari, S. K., Prakash, R., Pandey, P., & Ram, A. (2018). Groundwater quality assessment using water quality index (WQI) in parts of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 92(1), 76–82.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dalton, M. G., & Upchurch, S. B. (1978). Interpretation of hydrochemical facies by factor analysis. Groundwater, 16(4), 228–233.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Davis, J. C., & Sampson, R. J. (1986). Statistics and data analysis in geology (Vol. 646). Wiley.

  • Duraisamy, S., Govindhaswamy, V., Duraisamy, K., Krishinaraj, S., Balasubramanian, A., & Thirumalaisamy, S. (2019). Hydrogeochemical characterization and evaluation of groundwater quality in Kangayam taluk, Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu, India, using GIS techniques. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 41(2), 851–873.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ebrahimi, M., Kazemi, H., Ehtashemi, M., & Rockaway, T. D. (2016). Assessment of groundwater quantity and quality and saltwater intrusion in the Damghan basin, Iran. Geochemistry, 76(2), 227–241.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Freeze, R. A., & Cherry, J. A. (1979). Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, N., Yadav, K. K., Kumar, V., & Singh, D. (2013). Assessment of physicochemical properties of Yamuna River in Agra City. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 5(1), 528–531.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Honarbakhsh, A., Azma, A., Nikseresht, F., Mousazadeh, M., Eftekhari, M., & Ostovari, Y. (2019). Hydro-chemical assessment and GIS-mapping of groundwater quality parameters in semi-arid regions. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua, 68(7), 509–522.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, Y., Zuo, R., Li, J., Wu, J., Zhai, Y., & Teng, Y. (2018). The spatial and temporal variability of groundwater vulnerability and human health risk in the Limin District, Harbin, China. Water, 10(6), 686.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jagadeshan, G., Kalpana, L., & Elango, L. (2015). Major ion signatures for identification of geochemical reactions responsible for release of fluoride from geogenic sources to groundwater and associated risk in Vaniyar River basin, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74(3), 2439–2450.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kalaivani, K., & Krishnaveni, M. (2015). Multivariate statistical analysis of pollutants in Ennore Creek, south-east coast of India. Global NEST Journal, 17(3), 618–627.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Khan, A. T. (2011). Multivariate analysis of hydrochemical data of the groundwater in parts of Karwan-Sengar sub-basin, Central Ganga Basin, India. Global Nest Journal, 13(3), 229–236.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar, S., & Saxena, A. (2011). Chemical weathering of the Indo-Gangetic Alluvium with special reference to release of fluoride in the groundwater, Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 77(5), 459–477.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Li, P., Qian, H., Wu, J., Chen, J., Zhang, Y., & Zhang, H. (2014). Occurrence and hydrogeochemistry of fluoride in alluvial aquifer of Weihe River, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(7), 3133–3145.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Olasehinde, P. I., Amadi, A. N., Dan-Hassan, M. A., Jimoh, M. O., & Okunlola, I. A. (2015). Statistical assessment of groundwater quality in Ogbomosho, Southwest Nigeria. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajmm-3-1-4.

  • Pandey, H. K., Tiwari, V., Kumar, S., Yadav, A., & Srivastava, S. K. (2020). Groundwater quality assessment of Allahabad smart city using GIS and water quality index. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 6(2), 1–14.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Prasanth, S. V. S., Magesh, N. S., Jitheshlal, K. V., Chandrasekar, N., & Gangadhar, K. J. A. W. S. (2012). Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India. Applied Water Science, 2(3), 165–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rao, N. S., Rao, P. S., Reddy, G. V., Nagamani, M., Vidyasagar, G., & Satyanarayana, N. L. V. V. (2012). Chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of groundwater quality in Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(8), 5189–5214.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ravikumar, P., & Somashekar, R. K. (2017). Principal component analysis and hydrochemical facies characterization to evaluate groundwater quality in Varahi river basin, Karnataka state, India. Applied Water Science, 7(2), 745–755.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reghunath, R., Murthy, T. S., & Raghavan, B. R. (2002). The utility of multivariate statistical techniques in hydrogeochemical studies: An example from Karnataka, India. Water Research, 36(10), 2437–2442.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rehman, F., Cheema, T., Lisa, M., Azeem, T., Ali, N. A., Khan, Z., Rehman, F., & Rehman, S. U. (2018). Statistical analysis tools for the assessment of groundwater chemical variations in Wadi Bani Malik area, Saudi Arabia. Global Nest Journal, 20, 355–362.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rishi, M. S., Kaur, L., & Sharma, S. (2020). Groundwater quality appraisal for non-carcinogenic human health risks and irrigation purposes in a part of Yamuna sub-basin, India. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment An International Journal, 26(10), 2716–2736.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sanchez-Martos, F., Jimenez-Espinosa, R., & Pulido-Bosch, A. (2001). Mapping groundwater quality variables using PCA and geostatistics: A case study of Bajo Andarax, southeastern Spain. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 46(2), 227–242.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Satheeshkumar, S., Venkateswaran, S., & Kannan, R. (2017). Temporary fluoride concentration changes in groundwater in the context of impact assessment in the Vaniyar sub-basin, South India. Acta Geochimica, 36(1), 112–123.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shukla, S., Saxena, A., Khan, R., & Li, P. (2021). Spatial analysis of groundwater quality and human health risk assessment in parts of Raebareli district, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 80(24), 1–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Subbarao, C., Subbarao, N. V., & Chandu, S. N. (1996). Characterization of groundwater contamination using factor analysis. Environmental Geology, 28(4), 175–180.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tiwari, M., Shukla, N. K., Kumar, V., Sharma, G. D., Gupta, M. K., Singh, A., Toppo, P., & Tiwari, M. K. (2015). Assessment of ground water quality of Hamirpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(1), 597–603.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tiwari, R. N. (2011). Assessment of groundwater quality and pollution potential of Jawa block Rewa district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 1(3–4), 202.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Venkateswaran, S., & Deepa, S. (2015). Assessment of groundwater quality using GIS techniques in Vaniyar watershed, Ponnaiyar river, Tamil Nadu. Aquatic Procedia, 4, 1283–1290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Venkateswaran, S., Thangaraju, P., & Suresh, M. (2011). Groundwater quality mapping for irrigational purposes using geographic information technology in Vaniyar sub-basin, Ponnaiyar River, South India. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 6(3), 319–330.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, D., Wu, J., Wang, Y., & Ji, Y. (2020). Finding high-quality groundwater resources to reduce the hydatidosis incidence in the Shiqu County of Sichuan Province, China: analysis, assessment, and management. Exposure and Health, 12(2), 307–322.

  • World Health Organization. (1998). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Health criteria and other supporting information: addendum (Vol. 2). World Health Organization. No.WHO/EOS/98.1. Geneva, pp. 307–488.

  • Wu, J., Li, P., & Qian, H. (2015). Hydrochemical characterization of drinking groundwater with special reference to fluoride in an arid area of China and the control of aquifer leakage on its concentrations. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73(12), 8575–8588.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yadav, K. K., Gupta, N., Kumar, V., Arya, S., & Singh, D. (2012). Physico-chemical analysis of selected ground water samples of Agra city, India. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 4(11). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236215781_Physicochemical_analysis_of_selected_groundwater_samples_of_Agra_city_India.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.

Funding

No funding was received for conducting this study and for preparation of this manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Peethambaran.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Peethambaran, A., Anso, M.A., Salumol, T.S. et al. Multivariate statistical analysis of Vaniyar sub-basin, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. Int J Energ Water Res 8, 213–223 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-022-00189-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-022-00189-x

Keywords

Navigation