The current study examines physicochemical parameters and the water quality index and spatial interpolation analysis of water samples collected from the sacred, emerald green snow-fed lakes of Satopanth Tal in Uttarakhand, India. It is near Badrinath, a Hindu pilgrimage site, at an elevation of 4600 m above sea level. The lake is covered with snow between the end of October and May. This is a glacial corrie moraine-dammed lake having a maximum depth of 17.5 m. To determine the suitability of the water for various purposes, thirteen physicochemical parameters were assessed and the water quality was determined. The spatial distribution of the physicochemical parameters throughout the lake was studied using the ArcGIS interpolation tool. The physicochemical parameters and water quality index values showed that the lake's water quality is excellent for domestic purposes based on World Health Organization/Bureau of Indian Standards drinking water standards. The Piper and Johnson plots revealed that the dominance of carbonate weathering contributed major ions to the lake. The sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, magnesium hazard, residual sodium concentration used to evaluating the irrigation water quality index indicated all water samples were good and can be used for irrigation. The lake has so far remained relatively unpolluted. This study will provide more information for future research and long-term management of the sacred lakes by taking corrective action and drafting a development plan.
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The authors would like to thanks DST-SERB (HG) for the financial support for this research (Grant no. SB/DGH-63/2013). The authors also like to thank Dr. S.P Rai Associate Professor, BHU, Varanashi (Former Scientist C at National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India) for his immense support to conduct the analysis in NIH; authors would also like to thank the administration of Annamalai University as well as NIH, Roorkee for the smooth conduct of the documents without any delay. Last but not least the authors would like to thank the Himalayan Trekker Company for their support and help during the trekking period and in the fieldwork.
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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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Das, S., Vasudevan, S. & Selvaganapathi, R. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and water quality assessment in the lake Satopanth Tal, India. Int J Energ Water Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-021-00153-1
- Satopanth Tal
- Spatial analysis
- Water quality index