The point of the study is to discover the significance of Sirwan riverbank filtration in water treatment, and to compare the quality of Sirwan riverbank filtration water to other two sources, such as Sirwan River and the lake adjacent to Sirwan River, which is semi-riverbank filtration. Water samples have been taken month to month for three months from three sources of water in Kalar City, Iraq, which are Sirwan River, lake and riverbank. In arranging to evaluate the quality of each source of water some physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters were surveyed, such as turbidity, total dissolved solid, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, nitrate, sulfate, pH, coliform, Escherichia coli, and natural organic materials. Turbidities of Sirwan River and lake are typically high which are 13.47 and 6.9 NTU, respectively, however, turbidity is in excellent range in Sirwan riverbank filtration which is 0.3 NTU. Total dissolved solid level of Sirwan riverbank filtration is a bit critical, but it is still in safe range, which is 284 (mg/l). Coliform and Escherichia coli counts are greater than 100 (count/100 ml) in Sirwan River, and lower than 50 (count/100 ml) in lake water, while they are not recorded in Sirwan riverbank filtration. The study concluded that the quality of Sirwan riverbank filtration is best compared to other two sources, since it is ideal in expelling bacteria, organic materials and turbidity. Water treatment plant and profound well that utilized as the sources of potable water in Kalar City can be supplanted with Sirwan riverbank filtration.
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I would like to express my gratitude to the Directorate of Water and Sewerage of Kalar, Quality Assurance Department and University of Garmian, Civil Engineering Department for the laboratory support in chemical, physical and bacteriological tests.
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This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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Al-Jaf, . Assessment of Riverbank Filtration for Sirwan River in Iraq. Int J Energ Water Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-021-00149-x
- Bacteriological contamination
- Kalar City
- Physical and chemical parameters
- Water quality
- Water treatment