Skip to main content

Geochemical processes of groundwater for drinking purposes in Dharwar craton of Mallampalli area, Telangana, South India

Abstract

The goal of this study was to determine the groundwater chemistry to assess its quality and determine geochemical differences due to geological and hydrogeological conditions. Groundwater samples from forty different wells were analysed. According to hydrochemical data, the groundwater in the research region is somewhat alkaline in character and is classed as non-potable due to high EC and TDS values. Cations, anions is in the order of Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ and Cl > HCO3 > SO4 > NO3 > F, respectively. The dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater is Na+–Cl type; Mg2+ HCO3 type; Ca2+–Cl types and mixed type i.e. no cation and anion exceeds fifty percent. The groundwater chemistry in the studied area appears to be controlled by rock weathering, according to geochemical relationships. Because to point and non-point sources, nitrates exceeded allowed limits of 45 mg/L in 80% of total groundwater samples. According to the Schoeller Index, the study area is dominated by cation–anion exchange and base–exchange processes. Groundwater samples fall into the water–rock interaction zone in Gibbs plot. Seventy-five percent of ions in the research region contribute to ground water contamination, according to factor analysis. Groundwater samples fall into the water–rock interaction field in Gibbs plot. Non-ionic and ionic concentrations in the research area are deciphered using spatial variation maps. As a result, it is concluded that natural geology and anthropogenic acclimatisation govern groundwater quality in the studied area.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Data availability

Every related data and material are given in the main paper.

References

  1. Ahmed, M. T., Hasan, M. Y., Monir, M. U., Samad, M. A., Rahman, M. M., Islam Rifat, M. S., Islam, M. N., Khan, A. A. S., Biswas, P. K., & Jamil, A. H. M. N. (2020). Evaluation of hydrochemical properties and groundwater suitability for irrigation uses in southwestern zones of Jashore Bangladesh. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 11, 100441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100441

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ajaykumar, K., Vasant, W., Bhavana, U., & Rabindranath, S. (2019). An implication of boron and fluoride contamination and its exposure risk in groundwater resources in semi-arid region, Western India. Environment, Development and Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668019-00527

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. APHA. (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (22nd ed.). American Public Health Association.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Balamurugan, P., Kumar, P. S., & Shankar, K. (2020). Dataset on the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes in the Sarabanga River region, Tamil Nadu India. Data in Brief, 29, 105255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105255

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. BIS. (2014). Drinking water Specifications. Bureau of Indian Standard IS 10500.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Chadwick, B., Vasudev, V.N. and Hegde, G.V. (2000). The Dharwar craton, southern India, interpreted as the result of Late Archaean oblique convergence. Precambrian Research, 99(1–2), 91–111.

  7. Chowdhury, A.K. and Gupta, S. (2011). Evaluation of water quality, hydro-geochemistry of confined and unconfined aquifers and irrigation water quality in Digha Coast of West Bengal, India (a case study). International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2(2), 576–589.

  8. Cloutier, V., Lefebvre, R., Therrien, R., & Savard, M. M. (2008). Multivariate statistical analysis of geochemical data as indicative of the hydro geochemical evolution of groundwater in a sedimentary rock aquifer system. Journal of Hydrology, 353, 294–313.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Das, B. K., & Kaur, P. (2007). Geochemistry of surface and subsurface waters of Rewalsar Lake, Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh, constraints on weathering and erosion. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 69(5), 1020–1030.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Datta, P. S., & Tyagi, S. K. (1996). Major ion chemistry of groundwater in Delhi area; chemical weathering processes and groundwater flow regime. The Journal of the Geological Society of India, 47, 179–188.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Dimitriou, E., and Moussoulis, E. (2011). Land use change scenarios and associated groundwater impacts in a protected peri-urban area. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64(2), 471–482.

  12. Gibbs, R. J. (1970). The mechanism controlling world’s water chemistry. Science, 170, 1088–1090.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Guo, H., & Wang, Y. (2004). Hydro geochemical processes in shallow quaternary aquifers from the northern part of the Datong Basin China. Applied Geochemistry, 19(1), 19–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Handa, B. K. (1969). Description and classification of media for hydro-geochemical investigations, symposium on ground water studies in arid and semiarid regions. Roorkee.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Humphreys, W.F. (2009). Hydrogeology and groundwater ecology: does each inform the other. Hydrogeology Journal, 17(1), 5–21.

  16. Jamaa, H., El Achheb, A., & IbnoNamr, K. (2020). Spatial variation of groundwater quality and assessment of water table fluctuations in Plio-Quaternary aquifer formations in Doukkala Plain Morocco. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 11, 100398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Karanth, K. R. (1987). Groundwater Assessment. Development and management (pp. 576–638). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Kumar, S., & Sangeetha, B. (2020). Assessment of ground water quality in Madurai city by using geospatial techniques. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 10, 100297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100297

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Khan, F., Husain, T., & Lumb, A. (2003). Water quality evaluation and trend analysis in selected watersheds of the Atlantic Region of Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 88, 221–242.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lakshman, E., Kannan, R., & Senthil, K. M. (2003). Major ion chemistry and identification of hydro geochemical processes of groundwater in a part of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu India. Environmental Geosciences, 10(4), 157–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lall, U., & Sharma, A. (1996). A nearest neighbor bootstrap for re-sampling hydrologic time series. Water Resources Research, 32(3), 679–694.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Li, P., Wu, J., & Qian, H. (2013). Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes and identification of hydrogeochemical evolution mechanisms in Pengyang County, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69(7), 22–25.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Mohan, R., Sing, A. K., Tripathi, J. K., & Chowdhary, G. C. (2000). Hydrochemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in Naini industrial area, Allahabad district, Uttar Pradesh. The Journal of the Geological Society of India, 55, 77–89.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Muralidhara Reddy, B., & Sunitha, V. (2020). Geochemical and health risk assessment of fluoride and nitrate toxicity in semi-arid region of Anathapur district, South India. Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 2, 150–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enceco.2020.09.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Narsimha, A., & Sudarshan, V. (2013). Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Basara area, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh India. Journal of Applied Geochemistry, 15(2), 224–237.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Prathap, A., & Chakraborty, S. (2019). Hydro chemical characterization and suitability analysis of groundwater for domestic and irrigation uses in open cast coal mining areas of Charhi and Kuju, Jharkhand India. Groundwater for Sustainable Development. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Piper, A.M. (1953). A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. U.S. Geological Survey, Groundwater Note No.12.

  28. Rajmohan, N., & Elango, L. (2004). Identification and evolution of hydro geochemical processes in an area of the Palar and Cheyyar River Basin, Southern India. Environmental Geology, 46, 47–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Raju, N. J., Ram, P., & Dey, S. (2009). Groundwater quality in the Lower Varuna Basin, Varanasi District Uttar Pradesh. The Journal of the Geological Society of India, 73, 178–192.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Rao, N. S. (2006). Seasonal variation of groundwater quality in a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology, 49, 413–429.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Rogers, R. J. (1989). Geochemical comparison of groundwater in areas of New England, New York and Pennsylvania. Groundwater, 27, 690–712.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Saeedi, M., Abessi, O., Sharifi, F., & Meraji, H. (2010). Development of groundwater quality index. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-0837-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Sargaonkar, A., & Deshpande, V. (2003). Development of an overall index of pollution for surface water based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 89, 43–67.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Sarin, M. M., Krishnaswamy, S., DillikumarSomayajulu, B. L. K., & Moore, W. S. (1989). Major–ion chemistry of the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system; weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 997–1009.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Satyanarayanan, M., Balaram, V., Hussin, M. S. A., Jemaili, M. A. R. A., Rao, T. G., Mathur, R., Dasaram, B., & Ramesh, S. L. (2007). Assessment of groundwater quality in a structurally deformed granitic terrain in Hyderabad India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 131, 117–127.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Selvam, S., Manimaran, G. and Sivasubramanian, P. (2013). Hydrochemical characteristics and GIS-based assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal aquifers of Tuticorin corporation, Tamilnadu, India. Applied Water Science, 3(1), 145-159.

  37. Schoeller, H. (1967). Geochemistry of groundwater; An international guide for research and practice, UNISON, Paris.ch.15. p. 1–18.

  38. Shirazi, S.M., Imran, H.M. and Akib, S. (2012). GIS-based DRASTIC method for groundwater vulnerability assessment: a review. Journal of Risk Research, 15(8), 991–1011.

  39. Singaraja, C., Chidambaram, S., Prasanna, M. V., Thivya, C., & Thilagavathi, R. (2013). Statistical analysis of the hydrogeochemical evolution district in Tamil Nadu. Environ Earth Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2453-5

    Book  Google Scholar 

  40. Srivastava, A. (2005). Aquifer geometry, basement-topography and groundwater quality around Ken Graben, India. Journal of Spatial Hydrology, 2(2), 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Sreedevi, P. D., Sreekanth, P. D., Shakeel, A., & Reddy, D. V. (2019). Evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation in a semi-arid region of South India. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 5(3), 1043–1056.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Steube, C., Richter, S. and Griebler, C. (2009). First attempts towards an integrative concept for the ecological assessment of groundwater ecosystems. Hydrogeology Journal, 17(1), 23–35.

  43. Subba Rao, N., Marghade, D., Dinakar, A., Chandana, I., Sunitha, B., Ravindra, B., & Balaji, T. (2017). Geochemical characteristics and controlling factors of chemical composition of groundwater in a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(21), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-7093-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Subba Rao, N., Sunitha, B., Sun, L., DeepthiSpandana, B., & Chaudhary, M. (2019). Mechanisms controlling groundwater chemistry and assessment of potential health risk: A case study from South India. Geochemistry, 80(4), 125568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2019.125568

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Subba Rao, N. (2008). Factors controlling the salinity in groundwater’s from a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 138, 327–341.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Sunitha, V., & Sudharshan Reddy, Y. (2019). Hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater in and around Lakkireddipalli and Ramapuram, Y.S.R District, Andhra Pradesh India. Hydroresearch, 2, 85–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydres.2019.11.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Sudharshan Reddy, Y., Sunitha, V., & Suvarna, B. (2020a). Monitoring of groundwater quality for drinking purposes using the WQI method and its health implications around inactive mines in Vemula—Vempalli region, Kadapa District. South India. Applied Water Science., 10, 202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-020-01284-2

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Sudharshan Reddy, Y., Sunitha, V., & Suvarna, B. (2020b). Groundwater quality evaluation using GIS andwater quality index in and around inactive mines, Southwestern parts of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, South India. HydroResearch., 3, 146–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydres.2020.11.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Sunitha, V., & Mark, P. S. (2017). Geogenic contamination of Fluoride in Groundwater of Uravakonda, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting

  50. Sunitha, V., & Muralidhara Reddy, B. (2018). Defluoridation of water using menthe longifolia (Mint) as Bioadsorbent. Journal of Geophysical Union, 22(2), 207–211.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Sunitha, V., Rajeswara Reddy, B., & Ramakrishna Reddy, M. (2012). Groundwater quality evaluation with special reference to fluoride and nitrate pollution in Uravakonda, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh- a case study Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 2(1), 88–96.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Thapa, R., Gupta, S., Reddy, D. V., & Kaur, H. (2017). An evaluation of irrigation water suitability in the Dwarka river basin through the use of GIS-based modelling. Environmental Earth Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6804-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Tirumalesh, K., Shivanna, K., Sriraman, A. K., & Tyagi, A. K. (2010). Assessment of quality and geochemical processes occurring in groundwater’s near central air conditioning plant site in Trombay, Maharashtra India. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177(1–4), 409–418.

    Google Scholar 

  54. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (2007). exposure scenario selection Chapter 3. Retrieved 2 Feb 2007. RCRA Delisting Technical Support Document, p 8.

  55. World Health Organization. (2011). Guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd edn, Vol 1 recommendations (p. 540). WHO.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

The whole authors make a considerable input to this manuscript. SK, VS, and DP: wrote the major manuscript. YSR, RMR, NK, TB: engaged in drafting the manuscript; The whole authors discussed the results and implication of the manuscript at every phases.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vangala Sunitha.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

I testify on behalf of all co-authors that our article submitted to International Journal of Energy and Water Resources.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Saikrishna, K., Purushotham, D., Sunitha, V. et al. Geochemical processes of groundwater for drinking purposes in Dharwar craton of Mallampalli area, Telangana, South India. Int J Energ Water Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-021-00146-0

Download citation

Keyword

  • Geochemical processes
  • Factor analysis
  • Piper diagram
  • Gibbs diagram
  • Inter elemental relationships
  • Point and non-point sources