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Evaluation of water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes and Fluoride Health Hazard Risk Assessment (HHRA) in parts of semi-arid regions in the south-eastern part of India

Abstract

Water quality studies are an excellent way to learn about the state of water for human consumption. In this case, we looked at several semi-arid areas, particularly the Varadaiahpalem region in Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh. Human activities have a major problem of creating a lot of pollution, so standard analysis of procedure to estimate the current condition of natural resources is more important. As urban, population, and infrastructure (special economic zone (SEZ)) development increases, pressures on natural resources, such as water, air, and land increase. The result of the study contains that the trace element content in the samples is far less than the toxic limits. The parameters viz., conductivity, TDS, TH, Alkalinity, and some cations and anions were analysed. The majority of the parameters are lying below the BIS and WHO limits. The elevated parameters are total hardness, chloride, fluoride, calcium, and magnesium. The main reasons are rock water interaction, geogenic influence; industrial, agriculture, and household waste. Irrigation water quality parameters all fall within the permissible limit. The health hazard risk assessment (HHRA) of the study area in HQoral different ages such as adults (91%), women (91%), and men (64%) and HQdermal contact no significant in the study are populations. The main cause of the fluoride risk is due to the weathering and rock water interaction, especially hornblende biotite granite schist presence in the study area, i.e., shown in the Gibbs diagram.

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Availability of data and materials

The raw data is obtained from NRSC Bhuvan and USGS website (https://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in/ and https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) which is available free of cost and the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author, upon reasonable request.

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Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.

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VSG: manuscript and methodology preparation, Health Risk Assessment. PKB: sample collection, water sample analysis and remote sensing and GIS work.

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Correspondence to Pradeep Kumar Badapalli.

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The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships which have or could be perceived to have influenced the work reported in this article.

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Golla, V.S., Badapalli, P.K. Evaluation of water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes and Fluoride Health Hazard Risk Assessment (HHRA) in parts of semi-arid regions in the south-eastern part of India. Int J Energ Water Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-021-00145-1

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Keywords

  • Groundwater chemistry
  • Semi-arid
  • Drinking and irrigation water quality
  • Fluoride and Health hazard risk assessment (HHRA)