The increased rate of population and industrialization in the world today have enhanced contamination by toxic elements, which presents a public health and environmental challenges. In this research, the findings are based on 13 water samples acquired along the Ekulu River, the GIS and the multivariate methods of statistical analysis were adopted to Ekulu River hydrogeochemical tests to evaluate the impacts of urbanization and the spatial variation of harmful elements (Fe, Mn, As, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Zn) in the river water. By comparing the varying concentrations with World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard limits. All toxic metal content in samples taken surpassed the acceptable normal human intake limits. The amounts of Fe and Pb in the upstream samples collected were substantially greater than those from the mid-stream and down-stream areas. In addition, the results show high levels of Ni and As in upstream and down-stream areas, and high amounts of Mn and Cd in mid-stream areas. Multivariate statistical analysis like correlation matrix, PCA and CA confirmed that Fe, Mn, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are originated from human activity, especially spills from abandoned Enugu coal fields, solid waste disposal along the river channel and industrial effluents.
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The authors are thankful to Simuchi Analytical Laboratory, Onuiyi Nuskka, Enugu State where the data reported in this study were obtained.
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All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Ifediegwu, S.I., Ozoko, D.C. & Aganigbo, I.C. Multivariate statistical and GIS methods for the assessment of heavy metal toxicity in Ekulu River, Southeastern, Nigeria. Int J Energ Water Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-021-00133-5
- Toxic heavy metals
- Ekulu River
- Correlation matrix
- Spatial distribution