Groundwater pollution in the region of Relizane, Algeria with focus on the physical–chemical and bacteriological characteristics

Abstract

Freshwater is the main natural resource used for various forms of activities in our daily routines such as drinking, as well as for various developmental uses. Increasing the degree of contamination leads to disruption of our natural world which harms both the physical environments and the living organisms existing in the ecosystem. In the present paper, we studied water source samples taken from six spring water wells (Bas Cheliff Oued-Rhiou, Jdiouia, H'madna) located in rural areas of the Wilaya of Relizane, Algeria in the duration between January and December 2018. In accordance with the Algerian Bureau of Standards (IANOR) and the adopted World Health Organization (WHO), optimal guidelines for drinking water are tested, matched and validated for the characteristics of physical criteria and the bacterial load received. In addition, supplies of water have been tested for selected physical and chemical properties including temperature, acidity (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium, potassium, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, copper concentration, and bacteriological well analyses for fecal bacillus contamination. The obtained results show that the mean parameter EC (526.25 μc/cm and 1293.92 μc/cm) was not substantially different because of the high concentration of total solids dissolved in water due to fertilizers dissolved used in agriculture. Insignificant variations of pH were found(6 < pH < 8.5). However, the mean significant values are related to ammonium, potassium, nitrate, phosphate, and copper concentrations. The current study shows that most tropical supplies of water may not meet the standards of IANOR and WHO for drinking water and can therefore be a potential source of waterborne diseases. The pathogenic bacteria were not detected in the study wells.

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Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.

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Correspondence to R. Fares.

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Appendix

Appendix

See Table 4.

Table 4 The results of physico-chemical analysis of groundwater sampled from two site during the study period

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Fares, R., Naim, H. & Bouadi, A. Groundwater pollution in the region of Relizane, Algeria with focus on the physical–chemical and bacteriological characteristics. Int J Energ Water Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-021-00124-6

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Keywords

  • Water quality
  • Well
  • Physicochemical properties
  • Bacteriology
  • WHO