Skip to main content

Recycling of waste bagasse ash in concrete for sustainable construction

Abstract

The safe disposal of waste products generated by the industries is the main concern for the protection of environment. The sugar industry is producing about 44 thousand tons per day of bagasse ash (BA) and it is dumped on the open land. This is becoming a threat for environment. The utilization of bagasse ash in any form will be helpful in protecting the environment. Though raw bagasse ash has low pozzolanic properties, but still it has potential to be used in concrete manufacturing either as a partial ancillary to cement or sand. The incorporation of BA in concrete as cementitious material can reduce CO2 emission to some extent. This work was done to explore the prospect of use of as received bagasse ash and processed bagasse ash in concrete as cementitious material. The bagasse ash was utilized as partly replacement of cement at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% level by weight in concrete. Test results showed that 10% replacement of cement with bagasse ash is optimum quantity that can be used in concrete. Higher incorporation levels have negative impact on strength properties of concrete. The compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete containing 10% ground BA were 5.92% and 21.59% higher than that of conventional concrete at 28 days, respectively. The concrete made with 10% processed BA displayed 15.68% higher compressive strength than conventional concrete at 28 days. The addition of BA in concrete enhanced the resistance to chloride ion penetration.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. Agredo, J. T., de Gutiérrez, R. M., Giraldo, C. E. E., & González, L. O. (2014). Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement. Ingeniería e Investigación, 34(1), 5–10. https://doi.org/10.15446/ing.investig.v34n1.42787.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Arenas-Piedrahita, J. C., Monte-García, P., Mendoza-Rangel, J. M., Lopez Calvo, H. Z., Valdez-Tamez, P. L., & Martínez-Reyes, J. (2016). Mechanical and durability properties of mortars prepared with untreated sugarcane bagasse ash and untreated fly ash. Construction and building materials, 105, 69–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.12.047.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Arif, E., Clark, M. W., & Lake, N. (2016). Sugar cane bagasse ash from a high efficiency cogeneration boiler: Applications in cement and mortar production. Construction and Building Materials, 128, 287–297.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. ASTM C 1202-10. (2020). Standard test methods for electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration. West Conshohocken: ASTM International.

  5. ASTM C138-17a. (2020). Standard test method for density (unit weight), yield, and air content (gravimetric) of concrete. West Conshohocken: ASTM International.

  6. Bahurudeen, A., Kanraj, D., Dev, V. G., & Santhanam, M. (2015c). Performance evaluation of sugarcane bagasse ash blended cement in concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 59, 77–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bahurudeen, A., Wani, K., Basit, M. A., & Santhanam, M. (2015b). Assesment of pozzolanic performance of sugarcane bagasse ash. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28(2), 04015095.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bahurudeen, A., Vaisakh, K. S., & Santhanam, M. (2015a). Availability of sugarcane bagasse ash and potential for use as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete. Indian Concrete Journal, 89(6), 41–50.

    Google Scholar 

  9. BIS:516 (1959) Indian standard methods of test for strength of concrete. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards.

  10. BIS:1199. (1959). Indian Standard methods of sampling and analysis of concrete. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards.

  11. BIS: 383 (1970) Indian standard Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards.

  12. BIS:10262 (1982) Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards.

  13. BIS:8112 (1989) Indian Standard 43 Grade ordinary Portland cement—Specification. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards.

  14. BIS:5816. (1999). Indian standard Splitting tensile strength of concrete—test method. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards.

  15. Chi, M. C. (2012). Effects of sugar cane bagasse ash as cement replacement on properties of mortars. Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, 19(3), 279–285. https://doi.org/10.1515/secm-2012-0014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Chusilp, N., Jaturapitakkul, C., & Kiattikomol, K. (2009a). Effects of LOI of ground bagasse ash on the compressive strength and sulfate resistance of mortars. Construction and Building Materials, 23(12), 3523–3531.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Chusilp, N., Jaturapitakkul, C., & Kiattikomol, K. (2009b). Utilization of bagasse ash as a pozzolanic material in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 23(11), 3352–3358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Cordeiro, G. C., & Kurtis, K. (2017). Effect of mechanical processing on sugar cane bagasse ash pozzolan city. Cement and concrete Research, 97, 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.03.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Cordeiro, G. C., Toledo Filho, R. D., Tavares, L. M., & Fairbairn, E. M. R. (2008). Pozzolanic activity and filler effect of sugar cane bagasse ash in Portland cement and lime mortars. Cement and Concrete Composites., 30, 410–418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2008.01.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Cordeiro, G. C., Toledo Filho, R. D., Tavares, L. M., & Fairbairn, E. M. R. (2009). Ultrafine grinding of sugar cane bagasse ash for application as pozzolanic admixture in concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 39, 110–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Cordeiro, G. C., Toledo Filho, R. D., Tavares, L. M., & Fairbairn, E. M. R. (2012). Experimental characterization of binary and ternary blended-cement concretes containing ultrafine residual rice husk and sugar cane bagasse ashes. Construction and Building Materials, 29, 641–646.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ganesan, K., Rajagopal, K., & Thangavel, K. (2007). Evaluation of bagasse ash as supplementary cementitious material. Cement and concrete composites, 29(6), 515–524.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Jayminkumar, A. P., & Raijiwala, D. B. (2015). Experimental study on compressive strength of concrete by partially replacement of cement with sugar cane bagasse ash. Journal for Research in Engineering Application, 5(4), 117–120.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Loganayagan, S., Chandra Mohan, N., & Dhivyabharathi, S. (2020) Sugarcane bagasse ash as alternate supplementary cementitious material in concrete. Material Today Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.03.060.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Núñez-Jaquez, R. E., Buelna-Rodríguez, J. E., Barrios-Durstewitz, C. P., Gaona-Tiburcio, C., & Almeraya-Calderón, F. (2012). Corrosion of modified concrete with sugar cane bagasse ash. International Journal of Corrosion, 2012, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/451864.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Ribeiro, D. V., & Morelli, M. R. (2014). Effect of calcination temperature on the pozzolanic activity of Brazilian sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). Materials Research, 17(4), 974–981. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392014005000093.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Rukzon, S., & Chindaprasirt, P. (2012). Utilization of bagasse ash in high-strength concrete. Materials and Design, 34, 45–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Singh, N. B., Singh, V. D., & Rai, S. (2000). Hydration of bagasse ash-blended Portland cement. Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 1485–1488. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00324-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Soares, M. M. N. S., Poggiali, F. S. J., Bezerra, A. C. S., Figueiredo, R. B., Aguilar, M. T., & Cetlin, P. R. (2014). Effect of calcination conditions on the physical and chemical characteristics of sugar cane bagasse ash. Rem: Revista Escola de Minas, 67(1), 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0370-44672014000100005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Souza, L. M. S., Fairbairn, E. M. R., Toledo Filho, R. D., & Cordeiro, G. C. (2014). Influence of initial CaO/SiO2 ratio on the hydration of rice husk ash-Ca(OH)2 and sugar cane bagasse ash-Ca(OH)2 pastes. Química Nova, 37(10), 1600–1605. https://doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20140258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. United Nations Environment Programme, GEAS, (2010) UNON Publishing Services Section, Nairobi

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MS writing, formal analysis, RS: supervision, SSS investigation, GS review and editing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Malkit Singh.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Singh, M., Sidddique, R., Setia, S.S. et al. Recycling of waste bagasse ash in concrete for sustainable construction. Asian J Civ Eng 22, 831–842 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42107-021-00349-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Bagasse ash
  • Concrete
  • Compressive strength
  • Splitting tensile strength
  • Density