Asian Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 553–570 | Cite as

In-plane shear behavior of masonry walls strengthened with steel fiber-reinforced concrete overlay

  • M. A. Najafgholipour
  • S. M. Dehghan
  • A. R. Kamrava
Original Paper


Masonry load-bearing walls in unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings are the major load-resisting elements. The traditional URM buildings have shown poor performance during earthquakes which may be due to lack of lateral strength to withstand the inertia forces. Various retrofitting techniques have been proposed to improve the in-plane behavior of the existing URM walls. In recent proposed retrofitting techniques, innovative construction materials such as steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) have been employed in the form of a strengthening surface layer on URM walls. Experimental studies on this retrofitting technique which are mostly carried out on masonry panels indicate that this method is practical and efficient for seismic upgrading of URM walls. Therefore, to evaluate the effects of some parameters such as surface layer thickness, retrofitted face of the wall, wall aspect ratio, URM wall strength, and fiber content of SFRC mix on the in-plane shear behavior of both solid walls and walls with openings strengthened with SFRC overlay, a study is conducted through 3D finite-element modeling using software ABAQUS with appropriate material models. The analysis results indicate that in-plane strength enhancement of the retrofitted wall depends on wall aspect ratio. Furthermore, the surface layer thickness and fiber content of the SFRC mix have significant influence on the ultimate in-plane capacity of the walls retrofitted with SFRC surface layer. In addition, the efficiency of this strengthening technique in walls with opening depends on configuration of the surface layer on the walls. Finally, interaction of the masonry wall and SFRC overlay was evaluated through comparing the retrofitted walls’ in-plane strength with in-plane capacity of masonry and SFRC layer.


Unreinforced masonry In-plane behavior Seismic retrofitting Fiber-reinforced concrete Finite-element modeling 



The research project was financially supported by Fars Organization for Engineering Order of Building. This support is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. ABAQUS Analysis user’s manual 6.10-EF, (2010). Dassault Systems Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA.Google Scholar
  2. ACI 318-14, (2014). Building code requirements for structural concrete and commentary, American Concrete Institute.Google Scholar
  3. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), ASTM C144-11, (2011). Standard specification for aggregate for masonry mortar.Google Scholar
  4. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), ASTM E519-15, (2015). Standard test method for diagonal tension (shear) in masonry assemblages.Google Scholar
  5. Arisoy, B., Ercan, E., & Demir, A. (2015). Strengthening of brick masonry with PVA fiber reinforced cement stucco. Construction and Building Materials, 79, 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bencardino, F., Rizzuti, L., Spadea, G., & Swamy, R. N. (2008). Stress–strain behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete in compression. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE), 20(3), 255–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borri, A., Castori, G., & Corradi, M. (2011). Shear behavior of masonry panels strengthened by high strength steel cords. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 494–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choi, H., Bae, B., & Choi, Ch. (2016). Lateral resistance of unreinforced masonry walls strengthened with engineered cementitious composite. International Journal of Civil Engineering, 14, 411–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dardaei, S., Shakib, H., Khalaf Rezaei, M., & Mousavi, M. (2014). Analytical and experimental seismic evaluation of confined masonry walls retrofitted by steel-fiber and polypropylene shotcrete. Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 16, 271–280.Google Scholar
  10. Dehghani, A., Nateghi-Alahi, F., & Fischer, G. (2015). Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames. Engineering Structures, 105, 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dizhur, D., Griffith, M., & Ingham, J. M. (2013). In-plane shear improvement of unreinforced masonry wall panels using NSM CFRP strips. Journal of Composites for Constriction (ASCE), 17(6), 1–12.Google Scholar
  12. El-Diasity, M., Okail, H., Kamal, O., & Said, M. (2015). Structural performance of confined masonry walls retrofitted using ferrocement and GFRP under in-plane cyclic loading. Engineering Structures, 94, 54–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ELGawady, M. A., Lestuzzi, P. & Badoux, M. (2004). A review of conventional seismic retrofitting techniques for URM, 13th. International Brick and Block Masonry Conference, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  14. ELGawady, M. A., Lestuzzi, P., & Badoux, M. (2006a). Aseismic retrofitting of unreinforced masonry walls using FRP. Composites: Part B, 37, 148–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ELGawady, M. A., Lestuzzi, P. & Badoux, M. (2006). Retrofitting of masonry walls using shotcrete, NZSEE Conference.Google Scholar
  16. Gattesco, N., & Boem, I. (2015). Experimental and analytical study to evaluate the effectiveness of an in-plane reinforcement for masonry walls using GFRP meshes. Construction and Building Materials, 88, 94–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghiassi, B., Soltani, M., & Tasnimi, A. A. (2012). Seismic evaluation of masonry structures strengthened with reinforced concrete layers. Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), 138, 729–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Häbler, D., & Barros, J. A. O. (2013). Exploring the possibilities of steel-fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete for the flexural strengthening of masonry structural elements. International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration, 7, 26–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Halabian, A. M., Mirshahzadeh, L., & Hashemol-Hosseini, H. (2014). Non-linear behavior of unreinforced masonry walls with different Iranian traditional brick-work settings. Engineering Failure Analysis, 44, 46–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hognestad, E. (1955). A study of combined bending and axial load in reinforced concrete members, University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, bulletin no. 399.Google Scholar
  21. Kadam, S. B., Singh, Y., & Li, B. (2014). Strengthening of unreinforced masonry using welded wire mesh and micro-concrete—Behavior under in-plane action. Construction and Building Materials, 54, 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaushik, H. B., Durgesh, C. R., & Sudhir, K. J. (2007). Stress–strain characteristics of clay brick masonry under uniaxial compression. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE), 19(9), 728–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kent, D. C., & Park, R. (1971). Flexural members with confined concrete. Journal of Structural Division, Proceedings of American Society of Civil Engineers, 97(ST7), 1969–1990.Google Scholar
  24. Khajepour, M. (2015). Experimental study on in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry walls retrofitted by fiber reinforced concrete, M.Sc. Thesis, Shiraz University of Technology, Iran.Google Scholar
  25. Koutromanos, I., Kyriakides, M., Stavridis, A., Billington, S., & Shing, P. (2013). Shake-table tests of a 3-story masonry-infilled RC frame retrofitted with composite materials. Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), 139, 1340–1351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koutromanos, I., & Shing, P. (2014). Numerical study of masonry-infilled RC frames retrofitted with ECC overlays. Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), 140, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kyriakides, M. A., Hendriks, M. A. N., & Billington, S. (2012). Simulation of unreinforced masonry beams retrofitted with engineered cementitious composites in flexure. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE), 24, 506–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee, J., & Fenves, G. L. (1998). Plastic damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures. Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), 124(8), 892–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lin, Y. W., Wotherspoon, L., Scott, A., & Ingham, J. M. (2014). In-plane strengthening of clay brick unreinforced masonry wallettes. Engineering Structures, 66, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lourenco, P. B., Borst, R. D., & Rots, J. G. (1997). A plane stress softening plasticity model for orthotropic materials. International Journal of Numerical methods in Engineering, 40, 4033–4057.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. Lourenco, P. B., & Rots, J. G. (1997). Multisurface interface model for analysis of masonry structures. Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), 123(7), 660–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mazroi, A., Yaghoubifar, A., Majedi Ardakani, M. H., Zeidabadi Nejad, E. & Jafarpour, F. (2012). Experimental study of mechanical properties of common sand and cement mortar (for masonry), Research Report, BHRC Publication, Tehran, Iran.Google Scholar
  33. Najafgholipour, M. A. (2007). The effect of lack of mortar in head joints on the in-plane shear strength of unreinforced brick walls, M.Sc. Thesis, Shiraz University, Iran.Google Scholar
  34. Najafgholipour, M. A., Dehghan, S. M., Mirzaee, A. R., & Aghaei, A. A. (2016). Experimental investigation on flexural behavior of masonry prisms strengthened by fiber-reinforced mortar layer. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, 40(4), 277–286.Google Scholar
  35. Najafgholipour, M. A., Maheri, M. R., & Lourenço, P. B. (2013). Capacity interaction in brick masonry under simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane loads. Construction and Building Materials, 38, 619–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nataraja, M. C., Dhang, N., & Gupta, A. P. (1999). Stress–strain curves for steel-fiber reinforced concrete under compression. Cement & Concrete Composites, 21, 383–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Raissi Dehkordi, M., Yekrangnia, M., Eghbali, M. & Mahdizadeh, A. R. (2014). Report for retrofit procedure of school buildings in Iran, 2th. European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  38. Sevil, T., Baran, M., Bilir, T., & Canbay, E. (2011). Use of steel fiber reinforced mortar for seismic strengthening. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 892–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Spinella, N., Colajanni, P., & Recupero, A. (2014). Experimental in situ behavior of unreinforced masonry elements retrofitted by pre-tensioned stainless steel ribbons. Construction and Building Materials, 73, 740–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tan, K. H., & Mansur, M. A. (1990). Shear transfer in reinforced fiber concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE), 2(4), 202–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang, Q., Chai, Zh, & Wang, L. (2014). Seismic capacity of brick masonry walls externally bonded GFRP under in-plane loading. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 51(3), 413–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhuge, Y. (2010). FRP-retrofitted URM walls under in-plane shear: review and assessment of available models. Journal of Composites for Constriction (ASCE), 14(6), 743–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Najafgholipour
    • 1
  • S. M. Dehghan
    • 1
  • A. R. Kamrava
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringShiraz University of TechnologyShirazIran
  2. 2.Civil and Environmental EngineeringShiraz University of TechnologyShirazIran

Personalised recommendations