Asian Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 451–461 | Cite as

Performance of alkali-activated slag concrete against sulphuric acid attack

  • G. Madhuri
  • K. Srinivasa Rao
Original Paper


This study aims to investigate the performance of alkali-activated slag concrete (AASC) and conventional concrete (CC) against sulphuric acid attack. From the preliminary investigations conducted on 18 trial mixes of AASC, four AASC mixes (S–0.4–2.33–16M, S–0.5–2.33–12M, S–0.5–1.0–12M and S–0.5–2.33–16M) apart from CC mix are considered in this study. Concrete specimens of size 100 mm have been cast and cured under two curing regimes, namely ambient curing and heat curing. The specimens under heat curing are kept at a temperature of 60 °C for a period of 24 h. The CC and AASC specimens are exposed to sulphuric acid solution of 2.5, 5 and 10% concentrations for different immersion periods of 56, 91 and 180 days. The parameters that are examined in this study are weight change, depth of penetration and residual compressive strength apart from changes observed in visual appearance. The test results show that on exposure to sulphuric acid solution of 2.5, 5 and 10% concentrations, weight loss and penetration depth of AASC specimens are significantly less than those of CC specimens. The residual compressive strength is more for AASC specimens compared to CC specimens. Out of four AASC mixes considered, S–0.5–2.33–12M mix exhibits better performance against acid attack.


Alkali-activated slag concrete Conventional concrete Ambient curing Heat curing 


  1. Bernal, S. A., Rodríguez, E. D., Mejía Gutiérrez, R., & Provis, J. L. (2012). Performance of alkali activated slag mortars exposed to acids. Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, 1, 138–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BS 6699:1992. (1992). Specification for ground granulated blast furnace slag for use with Portland cement.Google Scholar
  3. Davidovits, J. (1994). Properties of geopolymer cements. In P.V. Krivenko (Ed.), Proceedings of First International Conference on Alkaline Cements and Concretes (pp. 131–149). Kiev, Ukraine.Google Scholar
  4. Hossain, K. M. A., & Lachemi, M. (2006). Performance of volcanic ash and pumice based blended cement concrete in mixed sulfate environment. Cement and Concrete Research, 36, 1123–1133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. IS 10262:2009. (2009). Guidelines for concrete mix design proportioning, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  6. IS 12269:1987. (1987). Specification for Ordinary Portland cement, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  7. IS 516:1959. (1959). Method of test for strength of Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1959.Google Scholar
  8. IS 383:1970. (1970). Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from the natural sources for concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  9. Kannapiran, K., Sujatha, T., & Nagan, S. (2015). Resistance of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams to acid and chloride migration. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC), 14(2), 225–238.Google Scholar
  10. Krivenko, P. (1997). Alkaline cements: terminology classification, aspects of durability. In H. Justnes (Ed.). Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. Gothenburg, Sweden, Amarkai and Congrex Goteborg, Gothenburg, Sweden.Google Scholar
  11. Kumaravel, N. S., Girija, P., & Anandha Kumar, B. (2015). Durability performance of various grade of geopolymer concrete to resistance of acid and salt. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC), 16(8), 1185–1191.Google Scholar
  12. Lloyd, R. R., Provis, J. L., & Van Deventer, J. S. J. (2012). Acid resistance of inorganic polymer binders. Corrosion rate. Materials and Structures, 45, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Madhuri, G., Siva Prasad, I. S., & Srinivasa Rao, K. (2017). Compressive strength of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete under Ambient curing. Indian Concrete Institute (ICI), 18, 31–37.Google Scholar
  14. Mansour, M. S., Kadri, El-H, Kenai, S., Ghrici, M., & Bennaceur, R. (2011). Influence of calcined kaolin on mortar properties. Construction and Building Material, 25, 2275–2282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Osman, B.H., Wu, E & Ji, B. (2015). Durability of concrete to sulfate attack under different environments. In Proceedings of the International conference on Advanced materials and Engineering Structural Technology, China, pp. 327–332.Google Scholar
  16. Provis, J. L. (2009). Activating solutio chemistry for geo-polymers. In J. L. Provis & J. S. J. van Deventer (Eds.), Geo-polymers: structure, processing, properties and industrial applications (pp. 50–71). Cambridge: Woodhead.Google Scholar
  17. Provis, J. L., & Van Deventer, J. S. J. (Eds.). (2013). Alkali-activated materials: state-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC224-AAM. Berlin: Springer/RILEM.Google Scholar
  18. Provis, J. L., Palomo, A., & Shi, C. (2015). Advances in understanding alkali-activated materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 78, 110–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pu, X., Yang, C., Liu, F. (1999). Studies on resistance of alkali activated slag concrete to acid attack. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Alkaline Cements and Concretes (pp. 717–721), Kiev, Ukraine.Google Scholar
  20. Puertas, F., & Torres-Carrasco, M. (2014). Use of glass waste as an activator in the preparation of alkali activated slag. Mechanical strength and paste characterization. Cement and Concrete Research, 57, 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rajamane, N. P., Jeyalakshmi, R. (2015). Quantities of sodium hydroxide solids and water to prepare sodium hydroxide solution of given molarity for Geopolymer concrete mixes. ICI Journal, 16(2), 33–36.Google Scholar
  22. Ravi Kumar, D., & Neithalath, N. (2012). Effects of activator characteristics on the reaction product formation in slag binders activated using alkali silicate powder and NaOH. Cement and Concrete Composites, 34, 809–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shi, C. (2003). Corrosion resistance of alkali-activated slag cement. Advances in Cement Research, 15, 77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shi, C., & Stegemann, J. A. (2000). Acid corrosion resistance of different cementing materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 803–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering (A)VisakhapatnamIndia
  2. 2.Andhra University College of Engineering (A)VisakhapatnamIndia

Personalised recommendations