Impacts of Critical Periods of Weed Control (CPWC) on Nitrogen Utilization and Grain Yield in Aerobic Rice Cultivation


The cultivation of aerobic rice appears to be a potential option while mitigating threats of looming water scarcity for sustainable rice production. Although, severe prevalence of multi-flush weed pressure inhibiting nitrogen utilization for optimum grain yield becomes the crux of the problem for up-scaling this technology. Thus, the hypothesis of the study was that critical period of weed control (CPWC) governs nitrogen accumulation in aerobic soil—plant continuum, which appears to be the major determinant of ultimate grain yield in aerobic rice cultivation. With this view, the field studies were successively conducted in two locations at Panthnagar, Uttar Pradesh during 2015 and at Cuttack, Odisha during 2016 in India. Nitrogen utilization was estimated with varying magnitude of critical period of weed prevalence at 15 days interval since sowing till 75 days of crop growth. Results recorded significantly higher nitrogen uptakes of 106.6 and 106.0 kg ha−1 while maintaining near weed-free situations during initial 75 days of crop growth at Panthnagar and Cuttack respectively, which were however comparable with similar situations maintained also at 60 and 45 days of crop growth in respective location. Consequently, stands at these situations produced comparable grain yield of 5.56 and 5.25 t ha−1, 5.40 and 5.00 t ha−1, and 5.15 and 4.70 t ha−1 at corresponding locations, which were significantly higher than those corresponding weedy stands producing 1.35 and 0.90 t ha−1, 1.48 and 1.10 t ha−1, and 2.86 and 2.45 t ha−1 grain yields in respective locations. Thus, higher nitrogen gains of 0.42 and 0.06%, and 0.31 and 0.03% were attributed to initial 75 and 60 days weed-free stands respectively at Panthnagar and Cuttack. While, nitrogen losses were maximum of 24.99 and 25.69%, and 24.26 and 24.85% at corresponding weedy crop stands; although, initial 15 day’s weedy crop stands or initial 45 days weed-free stands recorded the lowest nitrogen losses of 0.64 and 1.35%, and 1.51 and 2.16%, instead. Therefore, the study contributed above novel information explaining the dynamic correlation of nitrogen balance with prevalence and also magnitude of CPWC where N uptake culminated at 45 days weed-free situation ensuring optimum aerobic rice productivity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Anonymous. (1993). Methods of soil and plant analysis: LT2-01. Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Belder, P., Bouman, B. A. M., Spiertz, J. H. J., Peng, S., Castaneda, A. R., & Visperas, R. M. (2005). Crop performance, nitrogen and water use in flooded and aerobic rice. Plant and Soil, 273, 161–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bouman, B. A. M., & Lampayan, R. M. (2009). Aerobic rice 1&2. Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Das, T. K. (2008). Weed science: Basics and applications. New Delhi: Jain Brothers.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Das, T. K., Kaur, R., Singh, R., Shekhawat, K., & Choudhary, A. K. (2017). Weed management: ICN: TB-171/2017. Division of Agronomy, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute: New Delhi.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Dixit, A., & Varshney, J. G. (2008). Assessment of post-emergence herbicides in direct seeded rice. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 40, 144–147.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gomez, K. A., & Gomez, A. A. (1984). Statistical procedure for agricultural research (2nd ed., p. 10158). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Johnson, D. E., Wopereisb, M. C. S., Mbodjb, D., Dialloc, S., Powersd, S., & Haefele, S. M. (2004). Timing of weed management and yield losses due to weeds in irrigated rice in the Sahel. Field Crops Research, 85, 31–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kumar, A., Gaind, S., & Nain, L. (2008). Evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for paddy straw composting. Biodegradation, 19, 395–402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Mahajan, G., & Timsina, J. (2011). Effect of nitrogen rates and weed control methods on weeds abundance and yield of direct-seeded rice. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 57, 239–250.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Payman, G., & Singh, S. (2008). Effect of seed rate, spacing and herbicide use on weed management in direct seeded upland rice. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 40, 11–15.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Rahman, A. N. M. A., Mominul, A. K. M. L., Altamas, A. M., Rahman, R. M., & Anwar, M. P. (2017). Competitiveness of winter rice varieties against weed under dry direct seeded conditions. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 8, 1415–1438.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Saito, K., Azoma, K., & Rodenburg, J. (2010). Plant characteristics associated with weed competitiveness of rice under upland and lowland conditions in West Africa. Field Crops Research, 116, 308–317.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Singh, G., Singh, R. K., Singh, V. P., Singh, B. B., & Nayak, R. (1999). Effect of crop weed competition on yield and nutrient uptake by direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa) in rainfed lowland situation. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 44, 722–727.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Singh, M. K., Takur, R., Verma, U. N., Upasani, R. R., & Pal, S. K. (2000). Effect of planting time and nitrogen on production potential of Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L). cultivars in Bihar Plateau. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 45, 300–303.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Zhao, D. L., Atlin, G. N., Bastiaans, L., & Spiertz, J. H. J. (2006). Developing selection protocols for weed competitiveness in aerobic rice. Field Crops Research, 97, 272–285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Zhao, D. L., Bastiaans, L., Atlin, G. N., & Spiertz, J. H. J. (2007). Interaction of genotype × management on vegetative growth and weed suppression of aerobic rice. Field Crops Research, 100, 327–340.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Zhao, D. L., Atlin, G. N., Bastiaans, L., & Spiertz, J. H. J. (2009). Opportunities for ecologically-based aerobic rice cropping systems: weed competitiveness of genotypes. In V. R. Kingely (Ed.), Management, economic importance and biology (pp. 23–39). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Ghosh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ghosh, A., Tiwari, A. & Singh, O.N. Impacts of Critical Periods of Weed Control (CPWC) on Nitrogen Utilization and Grain Yield in Aerobic Rice Cultivation. Int. J. Plant Prod. 15, 151–159 (2021).

Download citation


  • Aerobic rice
  • Crop-weed competition
  • Nitrogen use efficiency
  • Weed management
  • Grain yield