International Journal of Plant Production

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 13–24 | Cite as

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Response to Partial Root Drying Irrigation, Planting Method and Nitrogen Application Rates

  • Sahar Ghasemi-Aghbolaghi
  • Ali Reza Sepaskhah
Original Paper


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important crop in many areas of the world. Drought and scarce resource of irrigation water are serious concerns in agricultural production in Iran and other arid and semi-arid regions. The objective of this study is to investigate the interaction effects of partial root drying (PRD) irrigation, planting method and different nitrogen application rates on yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies and economical nitrogen and water use for barley in 2011–2012 cropping season. The experiment was designed as split–split plot that arranged in randomized complete blocks with irrigation strategy as the main plot, planting method as the subplot and nitrogen levels as the sub-subplot in three replications. The irrigation strategies consisted of ordinary furrow irrigation (OFI) and variable alternate furrow irrigation (VAFI) as a PRD technique. The planting methods included of on-ridge planting (ORP) and in-furrow planting (IFP) methods. The nitrogen levels were 0 (N0), 90 (N1) and 180 (N2) kg N ha−1 as urea. The results indicated that using VAFI method, 25% reduction in irrigation water depth was occurred compared with OFI, with no significant yield reduction. Furthermore, in IFP method, yield increased 13% compared with ORP. The maximum profits, water economic productivity, water use efficiency and water productivity were obtained in VAFI with IFP and nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/ha. Nitrogen use efficiency in VAFI compared with OFI was increased due to higher nitrogen absorption by plant. Thus, it is indicated that in areas with water limiting, it is preferable to recommend VAFI, IFP and 180 kg N ha−1 as best management practice for barley farm in the study region.


Variable alternative furrow irrigation Deficit irrigation Planting pattern Water productivity Nitrogen use efficiency 



This research supported in part by a research project funded by Grant no. 96-GR-AGR 42 of Shiraz University Research Council, Drought National Research Institute, the Center of Excellence for On-Farm Water Management and Iran National Science Foundation (INSF).


  1. Abbadi, J., Gerendás, J., & Sattelmacher, B. (2008). Effects of nitrogen supply on growth, yield and yield components of safflower and sunflower. Plant and Soil, 306, 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abd El-Lattief, E. A. (2013). Safflower yields and water use efficiency as affected by irrigation at different soil moisture depletion levels and plant population density under arid conditions. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 59, 1545–1557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banziger, M., Feil, B., & Stamp, P. (1994). Competition between nitrogen accumulative and grain growth for carbohydrates during grain filling of wheat. Crop Science, 85, 440–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barzegari, M., Sepaskhah, A. R., & Ahmadi, S. H. (2017). Irrigation and nitrogen managements affect nitrogen leaching and root yield of sugar beet. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 108(2), 211–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borg, H., & Grimes, D. W. (1986). Depth development of roots with time: An empirical description. Transactions of the ASAE, 29, 194–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buttar, G. S., Thind, H. S., & Aujla, M. S. (2006). Methods of planting and irrigation at various levels of nitrogen affect the seed yield and water use efficiency in transplanted oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Agricultural Water Management, 85, 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cerrato, M. E., & Blackmer, A. M. (1990). Comparison of models for describing corn yield response to nitrogen fertilizer. Agronomy Journal, 82, 138–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Craswell, E. T., & Godwin, D. C. (1984). The efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers applied to cereals grown in different climates. Advances in Plant Nutrition, 1, 1–55.Google Scholar
  9. Dawson, J. C., Huggins, D. R., & Jones, S. S. (2008). Characterizing nitrogen use efficiency in natural and agricultural ecosystems to improve the performance of cereal crops in low-input and organic agricultural systems. Field Crops Research, 107, 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dordas, C. A., & Sioulas, C. (2008). Safflower yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rainfed conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 27, 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fageria, N. K., & Baligar, V. C. (2005). Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Advances in Agronomy, 88, 97–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghamarnia, H., & Sepehri, S. (2010). Different irrigation regimes affect water use, yield and other yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) crop in a semi-arid region of Iran. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 8, 590–593.Google Scholar
  13. Gholamhoseini, M., Agha-Alikhani, M., Sanavy, S. M., & Mirlatifi, S. M. (2013). Interactions of irrigation, weed and nitrogen on corn yield, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrate leaching. Agricultural Water Management, 126, 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haby, V. A., Black, A. L., Bergman, J. W., & Larson, R. A. (1982). Nitrogen fertilizer requirements of irrigated safflower in the Northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal, 74, 331–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang, M., Dang, T., Gallichand, J., & Goulet, M. (2003). Effect of increased fertilizer application to wheat crop on soil-water depletion in the Loess Plateau, China. Agricultural Water Management, 58, 267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Istanbulluoglu, A., Gocmen, E., Gezer, E., Pasa, C., & Konukcu, F. (2009). Effects of water stress at different development stages on yield and water productivity of winter and summer safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Agricultural Water Management, 96, 1429–1434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jensen, M. E. (1974). Consumptive use of water and irrigation water requirements. New York: American Society of Civil Engineering.Google Scholar
  18. Li, C., Sun, J., Li, F., Zhou, X., Li, Z., Qiang, X., et al. (2011). Response of root morphology and distribution in maize to alternate furrow irrigation. Agricultural Water Management, 98, 1789–1798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, Q. Q., Zhou, X. B., Chen, H. Y., & Yu, S. L. (2010). Grain yield and quality of winter wheat in different planting patterns under deficit irrigation regimes. Plant, Soil and Environment, 56, 482–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liang, H., Li, F., & Nong, M. (2013). Effects of alternate partial root-zone irrigation on yield and water use of sticky maize with fertigation. Agricultural Water Management, 116, 242–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu, F., Shahnazari, A., Andersen, M. N., Jacobsen, S. E., & Jensen, C. R. (2006). Effects of deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root drying (PRD) on gas exchange, biomass partitioning, and water use efficiency in potato. Scientia Horticulturae., 109, 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lopez-Bellido, L., Lopez-Belido, R. J., & Redondo, R. (2005). Nitrogen efficiency in wheat under rainfed Mediterranean condition as affected by spilt nitrogen application. Field Crops Research, 94, 86–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lovelli, S., Perniola, M., Ferrara, A., & Di Tommaso, T. (2007). Yield response factor to water (Ky) and water use efficiency of Carthamus tinctorius L. and Solanum melongena L. Agricultural Water Management, 92, 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A., Agha-Alikhani, M., Nassiri-Mahallati, M., Zand, E., Gonzalez-Andujar, J. L., & Azari, A. (2013). Agronomic performance, seed quality and nitrogen uptake of Descurainia sophia in response to different nitrogen rates and water regimes. Industrial Crops and Products, 44, 583–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Movahhedy-Dehnavy, M., Modarres-Sanavy, S. A. M., & Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A. (2009). Foliar application of zinc and manganese improves seed yield and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) grown under water deficit stress. Industrial Crops and Products, 30, 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nasr, H. G., Katkhuda, N., & Tannir, L. (1978). Effects of N fertilization and population rate-spacing on safflower yield and other characteristics. Agronomy Journal, 70, 683–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Quanqi, L., Xunbo, Z., Yuhai, C., & Songlie, Y. (2012). Water consumption characteristics of winter wheat grown using different planting patterns and deficit irrigation regime. Agricultural Water Management, 105, 8–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raun, W. R., & Johnson, G. V. (1999). Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agronomy Journal, 91, 357–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Razzaghi, F., & Sepaskhah, A. R. (2012). Calibration and validation of four common ET0 estimation equations by lysimeter data in a semi-arid environment. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 58, 303–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rostamza, M., Chaichi, M. R., Jahansouz, M. R., & Alimadadi, A. (2011). Forage quality, water use and nitrogen utilization efficiencies of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) grown under different soil moisture and nitrogen levels. Agricultural Water Management, 98, 1607–1614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sabbagh, V., Mahalleh, J. K., Roshdi, M., & Hosseini, N. (2012). Effect of nitrogen consuming and deficit irrigation on yield and some characteristic of safflower in relay cropping (Northwest of Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6, 2674–2680.Google Scholar
  32. Samadi, A., & Sepaskhah, A. R. (1984). Effect of alternate furrow irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of dry beans. Iran Agricultural Research, 3, 97–116.Google Scholar
  33. Sanchez-Mata, M. C., Camara, M., & Diez-Marques, C. (2003). Extending shef-life and nutritive value of green beans by controlled atmosphere storage: macronutrients. Food Chemistry, 80(3), 209–315.Google Scholar
  34. Sepaskhah, A. R. (1978). Time and frequency of irrigation in relation to growth stages of barley. Agronomy Journal, 70, 731–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sepaskhah, A. R., & Ahmadi, S. H. (2010). A review on partial root-zone drying irrigation. International Journal of Plant Production, 4, 241–258.Google Scholar
  36. Sepaskhah, A. R., & Ghasemi, M. M. (2008). Every-other furrow irrigation with different irrigation intervals for sorghum. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11, 1234–1239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sepaskhah, A. R., & Hosseini, S. N. (2008). Effects of alternate furrow irrigation and nitrogen application rates on yield and water-and nitrogen-use efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Production Science, 11, 250–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sepaskhah, A. R., & Kamgar-Haghighi, A. A. (1997). Water use and yields of sugar beet grown under every-other-furrow irrigation with different irrigation intervals. Agricultural Water Management, 34, 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sepaskhah, A. R., & Tafteh, A. (2012). Yield and nitrogen leaching in rapeseed field under different nitrogen rates and water saving irrigation. Agricultural Water Management, 112, 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shabani, A., Sepaskhah, A. R., & Kamgar-Haghighi, A. A. (2013). Responses of agronomic components of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) as influenced by deficit irrigation, water salinity and planting method. International Journal of Plant Production, 7, 313–340.Google Scholar
  41. Shahrokhnia, M. H., & Sepaskhah, A. R. (2016). Effects of irrigation strategies, planting methods and nitrogen fertilization on yield, water and nitrogen efficiencies of safflower. Agricultural Water Management, 172, 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shahrokhnia, M.H., Sepaskhah, A.R. (2017). Water and nitrate dynamics in safflower field under different irrigation strategies, planting methods and nitrogen fertilization and application of HYDRUS-1D model. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, (Submitted).Google Scholar
  43. Singh, K. P., & Kumar, V. (1981). Water use and water use efficiency of wheat and barley in relation to seeding dates, levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. Agricultural Water Management, 3, 305–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Skinner, R. H., Hanson, J. D., & Benjamin, J. G. (1999). Nitrogen uptake and partitioning under alternate-and every-furrow irrigation. Plant and Soil, 210, 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sparks, D. L., Page, A. L., Helmke, P. A., Loeppert, R. H., Soltanpour, P. N., Tabatabai, M. A., Johnston, C.T., & Sumner, M.E. (1996). Methods of soil analysis: Part 3. Chemical methods. Madison: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  46. Tafteh, A., & Sepaskhah, A. R. (2012). Yield and nitrogen leaching in maize field under different nitrogen rates and partial root drying irrigation. International Journal of Plant Production, 6, 93–114.Google Scholar
  47. Yarami, N., & Sepaskhah, A. R. (2015). Saffron response to irrigation water salinity, cow manure and planting method. Agricultural Water Management, 150, 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang, J., Sun, J., Duan, A., Wang, J., Shen, X., & Liu, X. (2007). Effects of different planting patterns on water use and yield performance of winter wheat in the Huang-Huai-Hai plain of China. Agricultural Water Management, 92, 41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Irrigation DepartmentShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations