Abranches, M., Theuerkauf, U. G., Scott, C., & White, C. S. (2020). Cultural violence in the aftermath of the Brexit referendum: Manifestations of post-racial xeno-racism. Advanced online publication. Ethnic and Racial Studies.
Akkerman, T., de Lange, S. L., & Rooduijn, M. (2016). Radical right-wing populist parties in Western Europe: Into the mainstream? London, UK: Routledge.
Allen, K. (2018). Whose crisis counts? Intersectionality, austerity and the politics of survival. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41(13), 2301–2309. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2018.1442016.
Andreouli, E., Greenland, K., & Figgou, L. (2019). Lay discourses about Brexit and prejudice: ‘ideological creativity’ and its limits in Brexit debates. European Journal of Social Psychology, 50(2), 309–322. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2625.
Andreouli, E., Kaposi, D., & Stenner, P. (2019). Brexit and emergent politics: In search of a social psychology. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 29(1), 6–17. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2375.
Andreouli, E., & Nicholson, C. (2018). Brexit and everyday politics: an analysis of focus-group data on the EU referendum. Political Psychology, 39(6), 1323–1338. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12544.
Antonucci, L., Horvath, L., Kutiyski, Y., & Krouwel, A. (2017). The malaise of the squeezed middle: Challenging the narrative of the ‘left behind’ Brexiter. Competition & Change, 21, 211–229. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024529417704135.
Augoustinos, M., & Every, D. (2007). The language of “race” and prejudice a discourse of denial, reason, and liberal-practical politics. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26, 123–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X07300075.
Bastos M., Mercea D., & Baronchelli A. (2018). The geographic embedding of online echo chambers: Evidence from the Brexit campaign. PLoS ONE, 13(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206841.
Bauman, Z. (2000). Liquid modernity. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
BBC (2014, 28 November). David Cameron's EU speech: full text. BBC. Retrieved from bbc.com.
BBC (2015). David Cameron criticised over migrant ‘swarm’ language. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-33716501.
Begum, N. (2018). Commentary: Minority ethnic attitudes and the 2016 EU referendum. UK in a changing Europe. https://ukandeu.ac.uk/minority-ethnic-attitudes-and-the-2016-eu-referendum/.
Benson, M., & Lewis, C. (2019). Brexit, British people of colour in the EU-27 and everyday racism in Britain and Europe. Ethnic and Racial Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2019.1599134.
Bhambra, G. K. (2017). Brexit, Trump, and ‘methodological whiteness’: On the misrecognition of race and class. The British Journal of Sociology, 68, 214–232. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12317.
Billig, M. (1996). Arguing and thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Billig, M. (2012). The notion of “prejudice”: Some rhetorical and ideological aspects. In J. Dixon & M. Levine (Eds.), Beyond prejudice: Extending the social psychology of conflict, inequality and social change (pp. 139–157). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Boler, M., & Davis, E. (2018). The affective politics of the “post-truth” era: Feeling rules and networked subjectivity”. Emotion, Space and Society, 27, 75–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emospa.2018.03.002.
Booth, R. (2019). Racism rising since Brexit vote, nationwide study reveals. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://theguardian.com.
Bouamama, S. (2004). L’affaire du Voile, ou la Production d’un Racisme Respectable. Paris, France: Ed. du Geais Bleu.
Buhagiar, L. J., & Sammut, G. (2020). ‘Social re-presentation for…’: An action-oriented formula for intergroup relations research. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 352. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00352.
Burnett, J. (2017). Racial violence and the Brexit state. Race & Class, 58(4), 85–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306396816686283.
Buyuker, B., D’Urso, A., Filindra, A., & Kaplan, N. (2020). Race politics research and the American presidency: Thinking about white attitudes, identities and vote choice in the Trump era and beyond. The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics, 1–42. https://doi.org/10.1017/rep.2020.33.
Cairncross, F. (1997). The death of distance: How the communications revolution is changing our lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.
Calhoun, C. (2017). Populism, nationalism and Brexit. In W. Outhwaite (Ed.), Brexit: Sociological Responses (pp. 57–76). London, UK: Anthem Press.
Chouliaraki, L., & Fairclough, N. (1999). Discourse in late modernity: Rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
Citrin, J., Wong, C., & Duff, B. (2001). The meaning of American national identity: Patterns of ethnic conflict and consensus. In R. D. Ashmore, L. Jussim, & D. Wilder (Eds.), Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction (pp. 71–100). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Clarke, J., & Newman, J. (2019). What’s the subject? Brexit and politics as articulation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 29(1), 67–77. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2376.
Costello, M. B. (2016). Teaching the 2016 election. The Trump effect. The impact of the presidential campaign on our nation’s schools. Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC). Retrieved from: https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/splc_the_trump_effect.pdf.
Cowburn, A. (2016). Nigel Farage refuses to apologize for ‘breaking point’ poster in final pitch to voters. The Independent. Retrieved from https://independent.co.uk.
Dearden, L. (2016). UK student stabbed in neck for speaking Polish describes brutal post-Brexit assault in Telford. The Independent. Retrieved from https://independent.co.uk.
de Genova, N. (2018). The “migrant crisis” as racial crisis: Do black lives matter in Europe?”. Ethnic and racial studies, 41(10), 1765–1782. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1361543.
Deschamps, J. (1982). Social identity and relations of power between groups. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Social identity and intergroup relations (pp. 85–98). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ditlmann, R. K., & Kopf-Beck, J. (2019). The meaning of being German: an inductive approach to national identity. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7(1), 423–447. https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v7i1.557.
Dolšak, N., & Prakash, A. (2016). Here's what many journalists missed when covering the Brexit vote. Washington Post. Monkey Cage. Retrieved from https://washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage .
Dorling, D. (2016). Brexit: The decision of a divided country. British Medical Journal, 354. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i3697.
Durrheim, K., Okuyan, M., Twali, M. S., García-Sánchez, E., Pereira, A., Portice, J. S., & Keil, T. F. (2018). How racism discourse can mobilize right-wing populism: The construction of identity and alliance in reactions to UKIP’s Brexit “Breaking Point” campaign. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 28(6), 385–405. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2347.
ECRI (2016). ECRI Report on the United Kingdom (fifth monitoring cycle). October 4. https://rm.coe.int/fifth-report-on-the-united-kingdom/16808b5758 Accessed 1 November 2019.
Elgot, J. (2018). Boris Johnson urges remainers to recognise benefits of leaving EU. The Guardian, 14 February. Retrieved from https://theguardian.com .
Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Fairclough, N. (2013). Critical discourse analysis. The critical study of language. (2nd ed.) Milton Park: Routledge.
Favell, A. (2020), Crossing the Race Line: “No Polish, No Blacks, No Dogs” in Brexit Britain? or, the Great British Brexit Swindle. In F. Duina, & F. Merand, (Eds.) Europe's Malaise (Research in Political Sociology, Vol. 27), Emerald Publishing Limited (pp. 1–41). https://doi.org/10.1108/S0895-993520200000027012.
Foner, N., Duyvendak, J. W., & Kasinitz, P. (2019). Introduction: Super-diversity in everyday life. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1406969.
Ford, R., & Goodwin, M. J. (2014a). Revolt on the right: Explaining support for the radical right in Britain. New York, NY: Routledge.
Ford, R., & Goodwin, M. J. (2014b). Understanding UKIP: Identity, social change and the left behind. The Political Quarterly, 85, 277–284. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12099.
Forster, K. (2016). Hate crimes soared by 41 % after Brexit vote, official figures reveal. Indepdentent. 13 October. Retrieved from https://independent.co.uk .
Friedman, T. L. (2006). The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. New York, NY: Picador/Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Fuchs, C. (2018). Nationalism 2.0: The making of Brexit on social media. London: Pluto Press.
Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2000). Reducing intergroup bias: The common ingroup identity model. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.
Gillespie, A. (2008). Social representations, alternative representations and semantic barriers. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 38(4), 375–391.
Goodman, S. (2017). " Take back control of our borders": the role of arguments about controlling immigration in the Brexit debate. Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej, 15(3) (Minorities, diasporas, refugees in contemporary Europe), 35–53.
Goodwin, M. J., & Heath, O. (2016). The 2016 referendum, Brexit and the left behind: An aggregate-level analysis of the result. The Political Quarterly, 87, 323–332. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12285.
Goodwin, M., & Milazzo, C. (2017). Taking back control? Investigating the role of immigration in the 2016 vote for Brexit. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 19(3), 450–464. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148117710799.
Haidt, J. (2016). When and why nationalism beats globalism. Policy: A Journal of Public Policy and Ideas, 32(3), 46–53. Available at https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=405917723085484;res=IELHSS.
Hanson, K., O’Dwyer, E., & Lyons, E. (2019). The individual and the nation: a qualitative analysis of US liberal and conservative identity content. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7(1), 378–401. https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v7i1.1062.
Hansson, S. (2015). Discursive strategies of blame avoidance in government: A framework for analysis”. Discourse & Society, 26(3), 297–322. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926514564736.
Haslam, S. A., Reicher, S. D., & Platow, M. J. (2011). The new psychology of leadership: Identity, influence and power. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Hobolt, S. B. (2016). The Brexit vote: A divided nation, a divided continent. Journal of European Public Policy, 23, 1259–1277. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2016.1225785.
Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85(3), 551–575. https://doi.org/10.1086/227049.
Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hochschild, A. R. (2003). The commercialization of intimate life: Notes from home and work. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hochschild, A. R. (2016). Strangers in their own land: Anger and mourning on the American right. New York, NY: New Press.
Holden, M. (2016). UK vows action after racist attacks on Poles and Muslims in wake of Brexit. Reuters UK. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com.
Home Office (2019/2020). Offical Hate Crime Statistics 2019/20. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/925968/hate-crime-1920-hosb2920.pdf.
Hunter, W., & Power, T. J. (2019). Bolsonaro and Brazil’s illiberal backlash”. Journal of Democracy, 30(1), 68–82. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2019.0005.
Inglehart, R., & P. Norris (2016). “Trump, Brexit, and the rise of populism: economic have-nots and cultural backlash.” Working Paper Series 16–026, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
Kaakinen, M., Sirola, A., Savolainen, I., & Oksanen, A. (2020). Shared identity and shared information in social media: Development and validation of the identity bubble reinforcement scale. Media Psychology, 23(1), 25–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2018.1544910.
Kaufman, E. (2016). It’s NOT the economy, stupid: Brexit as a story of personal values. LSE BPP. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/personal-values-brexit-vote/
Khaleeli, H. (2016). “A frenzy of hatred”: How to understand Brexit racism.” The Guardian. Retrieved from https://theguardian.com.
Kymlicka, W. (2010). The rise and fall of multiculturalism? New debates on inclusion and accommodation in diverse societies”. International Social Science Journal, 61, 97–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2451.2010.01750.x.
Lahuerta, S.B. and Iusmen, I. (2020). EU national` vulnerability in the context of Brexit: the case of Polish nationals, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2019.1710479.
Leidig, E. C. (2019). Immigrant, nationalist and proud: A Twitter analysis of Indian diaspora supporters for Brexit and Trump. Media and Communication, 7(1), 77–89.
Lentin, A. (2016). Racism in public or public racism: Doing anti-racism in ‘postracial’ times”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39, 33–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2016.1096409.
Liu, H., & Mills, D. (2006). Modern racism and neo-liberal globalization: The discourses of plausible deniability and their multiple functions. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16(2), 83–99. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.847.
Livingstone, A., & Haslam, S. A. (2008). The importance of social identity content in a setting of chronic social conflict: Understanding intergroup relations in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466607X200419.
Looney, S. (2017). Breaking Point? An Examination of the Politics of Othering in Brexit Britain. TLI Think! Paper 69/2017. Retrieved from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3014638 or https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3014638.
Lulle, A., Moroşanu, L., & King, R. (2018). And then came Brexit: Experiences and future plans of young EU migrants in the London region”. Population, Space and Place, 24, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2122.
Martin, N., Sobolewska, M., & Begum, N. (2019). Left Out of the Left Behind: Ethnic Minority Support for Brexit. Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3320418.
Major, B., Blodorn, A., & Blascovich, G. M. (2018). The threat of increasing diversity: Why many white Americans support Trump in the 2016 presidential election”. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 21(6), 931–940. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430216677304.
McConahay, J. B. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern racism scale. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 91–125). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Meer, N., & Modood, T. (2012). How does interculturalism contrast with multiculturalism. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(2), 175–196. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256868.2011.618266.
Meleady, R., Seger, C. R., & Vermue, M. (2017). Examining the role of positive and negative intergroup contact and anti-immigrant prejudice in Brexit. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56, 799–808. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12203.
Mintchev, N. (2020). The cultural politics of racism in the Brexit conjuncture, International Journal of Cultural Studies. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877920935135.
Moss, S. M. (2014). Beyond conflict and spoilt identities: How Rwandan leaders justify a single recategorization model for post-conflict reconciliation. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 2, 435–449. https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v2i1.29.
Moss, S. M. (2017). Identity hierarchy within the Sudanese superordinate identity: Political leadership promoting and demoting subordinate groups. Political Psychology, 38, 925–942. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12378.
National Archives (2011). PMs speech at the Munich Security Conference. Retrieved from: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130102224134/http://www.number10.gov.uk/news/pms-speech-at-munich-security-conference/.
Nowicka, M. (2018). “I don’t mean to sound racist but…” Transforming racism in transnational Europe. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41, 824–841. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1302093.
Paasi, A., Prokkola, E.-K., Saarinen, J., & Zimmerbauer, K. (2018). Borderless worlds for whom? Ethics, moralities and mobilities. London, UK: Routledge.
Pettersson, K. (2019). “Freedom of speech requires actions”: Exploring the discourse of politicians convicted of hate-speech against Muslims. European Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 938–952. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2577.
Portice, J., & Reicher, S. (2018). Arguments for European disintegration: A mobilization analysis of anti-immigration speeches by U.K. political leaders.” Political Psychology, 39(6), 1357–1372. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12551.
Reicher, S. (2004). The context of social identity: Domination, resistance, and change. Political Psychology, 25, 921–945. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2004.00403.x.
Reicher, S., & Hopkins, N. (2001). Self and nation. London, UK: SAGE.
Reid, S. A., & Ng, S. H. (2003). Identity, power, and strategic social categorizations: Theorizing the language of leadership. In D. van Knippenberg & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), Leadership and power. Identity processes in groups and organizations (pp. 210–223). London, UK: Sage.
Rodríguez-Pose, A. (2018). The revenge of the places that don’t matter (and what to do about it). Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 11(1), 189–209. https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsx024.
Rutchick, A., & Eccleston, C. (2010). Ironic effects of invoking common ingroup identity. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 32, 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973531003738353.
Rzepnikowska, A. (2019). Racism and xenophobia experienced by Polish migrants in the UK before and after Brexit vote. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1451308.
Sakki, I. H. (2016). Raising European citizens: Constructing European identities in French and English textbooks. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 4(1), 444–472. https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v4i1.350.
Sakki, I., Hakoköngäs, E., & Pettersson, K. (2017). Past and present nationalist political rhetoric in Finland: Changes and continuities. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 37(2), 160–180. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X17706945.
Schröter, M. (2013). Silence and concealment in political discourse. Amsterdam, Netherland: John Benjamins Publishing.
Stewart, H., & Mason, R. (2016). Nigel Farage's anti-migrant poster reported to police. Guardian. Retrieved from theguardian.com.
Sullivan, D. (2020). Social psychological theory as history: Outlining the critical-historical approach to theory. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 24(1), 78–99. https://doi.org/10.11777/1088868319883174.
Swami, V., Barron, D., Weis, L., & Furnham, A. (2018). To Brexit or not to Brexit: The roles of Islamophobia, conspiracist beliefs, and integrated threat in voting intentions for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. British Journal of Psychology, 109(1), 156–179. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12252.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict”. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–48). Monterey: Brooks/Cole.
Taylor, A. (2016). The uncomfortable question: Was the Brexit vote based on racism? The Washington post. Retrieved from washingtonpost.com.
Tonkens, E. (2012). Working with Arlie Hochschild: Connecting feelings to social change. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 19(2), 194–218. https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxs003.
Turner, J. H., & Stets, J. E. (2005). The sociology of emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Verkuyten, M., Adelman, L., & Yogeeswaran, K. (2020). The Psychology of intolerance: Unpacking diverse understandings of intolerance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 29(5), 467–472.
Vertovec, S. (2007). Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6), 1024–1054. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870701599465.
Virdee, S., & McGeever, B. (2018). Racism, crisis, Brexit. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41, 1802–1819. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1361544.
Weaver, A. (2010). Angela Merkel: German multiculturalism has ‘utterly failed’, The Guardian. Retrieved from theguardian.com.
Webster, W. (2018). Mixing it: Diversity in World War Two Britain. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Wodak, R. (2015). The politics of fear: What right-wing populist discourses mean. London, UK: Sage.
Wodak, R., & Reisigl, M. (2001). Discourse and racism. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, & H. E. Hamilton (Eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 372–397). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Žižek, S. (1994). The spectre of ideology. In S. Žižek (Ed.), Mapping ideology (pp. 1–33). London, UK: Verso.