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The deep-space multi-object orbit determination system and its application to Hayabusa2’s asteroid proximity operations

Abstract

The deep-space multi-object orbit determination system (DMOODS) and its application in the asteroid proximity operation of the Hayabusa2 mission are described. DMOODS was developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the primary purpose of determining the trajectory of deep-space spacecraft for JAXA’s planetary missions. The weighted least-squares batch filter is used for the orbit estimator of DMOODS. The orbit estimator supports more than 10 data types, some of which are used for relative trajectory measurements between multiple space objects including natural satellites and small bodies. This system consists of a set of computer programs running on Linux-based consumer PCs on the ground, which are used for orbit determination and the generation of radiometric tracking data, such as delta differential one-way ranging and doppler tracking data. During the asteroid proximity phase of Hayabusa2, this system played an essential role in operations that had very strict navigation requirements or operations in which few optical data were obtained owing to special constraints on the spacecraft attitude or distance from the asteroid. One example is orbit determination during the solar conjunction phase, in which the navigation accuracy is degraded by the effect of the solar corona. The large range bias caused by the solar corona was accurately estimated with DMOODS by combining light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and ranging measurements in the superior solar conjunction phase of Hayabusa2. For the orbiting operations of target markers and the MINERVA-II2 rover, the simultaneous estimation of six trajectories of four artificial objects and a natural object was made by DMOODS. This type of simultaneous orbit determination of multi-artificial objects in deep-space has never been accomplished before.

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Abbreviations

BCRF:

barycentric celestial reference frame

delta-DOR:

delta differential one-way ranging

HP:

home position

OD:

orbit determination

c :

speed of light (m·s−1)

p(x,y):

brightness (0–1) of the pixel (x,y) of an onboard camera image

η :

model parameter of the thermal radiation model (0–1)

e, ė :

Earth’s position vector relative to the asteroid (km) and its time derivative (km·s−1)

s, ṡ :

Sun’s position vector relative to the asteroid (km) and its time derivative (km·s−1)

\({\hat x}\), \({\hat y}\), ẑ, \({\dot \hat x}\), \({\dot \hat y}\), \({\dot \hat z}\) :

x-, y-, and z-axis unit vector of the HP coordinate and their time derivatives

Q, \({\dot Q}\) :

rotation matrix from inertial frame (BCRF) to HP coordinate and its time derivative

a i, ϵi :

albedo and emissivity of an ith facet of a small body’s shape model

A,B,C :

solve-for parameters for the solar corona correction model (m)

R s :

radius of the Sun (696,000 km) used in the solar corona correction model

ϕ 0 :

reference latitude (10°) used in the solar corona correction model

f :

up-leg or down-leg carrier frequency (Hz)

\({\bar C_{nm}}\), \({\bar S_{nm}}\) :

normalized gravity coefficients of degree n and order m

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Acknowledgements

This research was carried out at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of JAXA. The authors are grateful to the whole Hayabusa2 operation team for supplying the operation data used in this analysis. The authors would like to acknowledge the huge contribution made by the members of the Deep-space Orbit Determination Group in ISAS: S. Taniguchi, N. Fujii, B. Ichikawa, T. Yagami, K. Takezawa, and M. Yoshikawa. Special thanks to N. Fujii who passed away too soon on November 4, 2019, before the project was completed. Most of the tracking data from JAXA’s deep-space stations were calibrated and distributed to the community by him. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of the Hayabusa2 navigation team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), J. Bellerose, S. Bhaskaran, Z. B. Tarzi, and J. S. Border for their excellent support to deliver high-quality navigation data from the Deep Space Network. We also acknowledge the contributions of the rest of the Hayabusa2 team at JPL who provided various support in terms of the scheduling and technical assessment, including A. W. Kruger, S. Zadourian, M. A. Ritterbush, T. J. Hofmann, and S. W. Asmar. We also thank the tracking team at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the ESA for the delivery of Hayabusa2 tracking data from the European Space Tracking (ESTRACK) network. Finally, we are very grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments that led to the significant improvement of our paper.

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Correspondence to Hiroshi Takeuchi.

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Hiroshi Takeuchi received his Ph.D. degree in physics and applied physics from Waseda University in 2000. In 2006 he began working for the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/ Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) as a member of the Deep-space Orbit Determination Group. Dr. Takeuchi was a visiting researcher at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2012–2013. He is currently an associate professor at ISAS/JAXA, and is also the lead for the orbit determination of Hayabusa2. His current research interest lies in developing the deep-space multi-object determination system.

Kent Yoshikawa received his bachelor degree and master degree in engineering from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2013 and 2015, respectively. In 2015, he started working as an engineer in the Research and Development Directorate, JAXA. His current research interests include astrodynamics, guidance, navigation & control (GNC), planetary robotics, and planetary exploration.

Yuto Takei received his Ph.D. degree in engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, in 2015. He is a researcher at the Research and Development Directorate, JAXA. He is involved in the Hayabusa2 project as a system engineer. His research interests include astrodynamics, spacecraft systems, space robotics, and deep-space exploration.

Shota Kikuchi received his Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the University of Tokyo in 2018. From 2015 to 2017, he served as a visiting scholar at Purdue University and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He is currently a postdoctoral research associate at JAXA and is engaged in the Hayabusa2 asteroid sample return mission as a system engineer. His primary research interests lie in the field of astrodynamics, particularly in the dynamics around small bodies.

Hitoshi Ikeda received his Ph.D. degree from Kyusyu University, Japan, in 2008. He is a researcher at Research and Development Directorate, JAXA. He is involved in Hayabusa2 project as a radio science researcher. His research interests include astrodynamics, orbit determination, mission design, and flight dynamics operation.

Stefania Soldini is an assistant professor in space engineering from the University of Liverpool, UK, since 2019. She is a member of the Hayabusa2 Joint Science Team (HJST) as astrodynamics Co-I. She was the PI of the “Hayabusa 2” superior solar conjunction mission phase in late 2018. She worked at ISAS from 2016 to 2019 after completing a one-year of JSPS Post Doc Research Fellowship at the same institution. Dr. Soldini received her Ph.D. degree in October 2016 from the Astronautical Research Group of the University of Southampton, UK. Her research interests are astrodynamics, GNC for asteroids proximity operations, ejecta particles dynamics, planetary defence, solar sail technology, additive manufacturing, and AI.

Naoko Ogawa received her B.E., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in mathematical engineering and information physics in 2000, 2002, and 2005, respectively, from the University of Tokyo, Japan. From 2004 to 2008 she was a Research Fellow at the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Since 2008 she has been a research engineer at ISAS, JAXA. Her current research interests include astrodynamics, mission design, robotics, spacecraft systems and operation.

Yuya Mimasu is a researcher at JAXA. He graduated with his Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the Kyushu University. After graduation, he joined JAXA, and has been working on guidance, navigation, and control subsystems of the Hayabusa2 mission, which is JAXA’s sample return mission to the asteroid Ryugu. His research interests are astrodynamics and mission analysis around small bodies.

Go Ono is a researcher at JAXA. He graduated with his master of engineering degree from the University of Bath in 2011 and his Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Tokyo in 2014. He joined JAXA in 2015, and has been working on guidance, navigation, and control systems of JAXA’s deep-space missions such as Hayabusa2 and MMX. His current research interests are astrodynamics and deep-space exploration.

Fuyuto Terui received his Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Osaka Prefecture in 1989. He has been a staff member of the Space Technology Research Center of National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) of Japan since 1989. He was a visiting scholar at the University of Cambridge, Engineering Department, Control Group between 1994 and 1995. After the reorganization of space agencies in Japan, he has been a staff member of JAXA since 2003 and is now a function manager of the “Hayabusa2” project as well as a representative of the Attitude and Orbit Control System of “Hayabusa2” spacecraft. His main research field is robust control and image-based guidance, navigation, and control of spacecraft such as debris removal space robots and the asteroid exploration probe.

Naoya Sakatani received his Ph.D. degree in science from the Graduate University for Advanced Studies in 2015. In 2018, he started working at ISAS/JAXA as a science team member of Hayabusa2 mission. He is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Physics, Rikkyo University. His research interest is planetary science based on laboratory experiments and remote-sensing observations.

Manabu Yamada received his Ph.D. degree in Earth and planetary sciences from Hokkaido University, Japan, in 2006. He isastaff scientist at Planetary Exploration Research Center (PERC), Chiba Institute of Technology. He is now involved in Hayabusa2 project. He was a developer of the Optical Navigation Camera (ONC) system. His research interests include planetary atmospheres, remote sensing, and deep-space exploration.

Toru Kouyama is a senior researcher at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). He graduated with a master degree in Earth and planetary science from the University of Tokyo in 2008, and with a Ph. D. degree in Earth and planetary science from the University of Tokyo in 2012. He has joined AIST in 2012, and has been working on remote sensing research and satellite sensor calibration. His current research interests are planetary science, remote sensing, and deep-space exploration.

Shingo Kameda is a professor in Rikkyo University. He graduated with a master degree in science from the University of Tokyo in 2004, and with a Ph.D. degree in science from the University of Tokyo in 2007. He has joined Rikkyo University in 2011 and has been working on development of scientific instruments onboard spacecraft for solar system exploration. His current research interest is planetary science.

Takanao Saiki received his Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the University of Tokyo, Japan, in 2005. He is an assistant professor at ISAS, JAXA. He is now involved in the Hayabusa2 project. He was a chief developer of the impact system and is currently a project engineer. His research interests include astrodynamics, spacecraft system, and deep-space exploration.

Yuichi Tsuda received his Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the University of Tokyo in 2003 and joined JAXA in 2003 as a research associate. He was a visiting scholar at the Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan and Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder in 2008–2009. He was a deputy lead of the IKAROS project, the world’s first interplanetary solar sail mission. He is currently a professor at ISAS/JAXA and is also the project manager of the Hayabusa2, an asteroid sample-return mission. His research interests are astrodynamics, spacecraft system, and deep-space exploration.

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Takeuchi, H., Yoshikawa, K., Takei, Y. et al. The deep-space multi-object orbit determination system and its application to Hayabusa2’s asteroid proximity operations. Astrodyn 4, 377–392 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42064-020-0084-7

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Keywords

  • orbit determination
  • optical navigation
  • gravity measurements
  • superior solar conjunction
  • delta differential one-way ranging (delta-DOR)