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Ground-based low altitude hovering technique of Hayabusa2

Abstract

The asteroid explorer Hayabusa2 carries multiple rovers and separates them to land on an asteroid surface. One of these rovers, called MASCOT, was developed under the international cooperation between the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt and the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales. This rover was designed to be separated to land and perform several missions on an asteroid surface. To support these missions, the mother ship Hayabusa2 must separate this rover at a low altitude of approximately 50 m and hover at approximately 3 km after separation to achieve are liable communication link with MASCOT. Because the on-board guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) does not have an autonomous hovering function, this hovering operation is performed by ground-based control. This paper introduces the GNC operation scheme for this hovering operation and reports on its flight results.

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Abbreviations

FTA:

fixed time arrival

FOV:

field of view

GNC:

guidance, navigation, and control

GCP-NAV:

ground control point navigation

HGA:

high gain antenna

HP:

home position

HPNAV:

home position navigation

JAXA:

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

LIDAR:

light detection and ranging (laser altimeter)

MASCOT:

mobile asteroid surface scout

ONC-W1/2:

optical navigation camera wide-1/2

ONC-T:

optical navigation camera telescopic

RCS:

reaction control system

RHC:

receding horizon control

SAP:

solar array panel

SC:

spacecraft

TM:

target marker

A :

effective area for solar radiation

a :

acceleration vector

C r :

effective reflectivity of the spacecraft

c :

light speed

GM:

gravitational parameter of the asteroid

GMSun :

gravitational parameter of Sun

L lowest_hov :

lowest altitude in the contingency case during hovering

L min_hov :

minimum altitude LIDAR can sense

L min_LDR :

lowest altitude LIDAR can sense

\({L_{{{\rm{G}}_{{\rm{err}}}}}}\) :

guidance error of altitude

\({L_{{{\rm{N}}_{{\rm{err}}}}}}\) :

navigation error of altitude

L 0_hov :

minimum hovering altitude

L 0_hov_min :

minimum altitude of the proposed hovering scheme

m :

mass of the spacecraft

n :

number of control window ahead

r :

position vector

:

velocity vector

\({\bf{a}}\) :

acceleration vector

r s :

solar distance

r ft :

target position vector at the final point

r t :

target position vector

δr :

position error

δr f * :

position error at target point

S 0 :

solar constant

s :

Sun direction vector

\({V_{{{\rm{N}}_{{\rm{err}}}}}}\) :

navigation error of velocity

\({\rm{\Delta}}{V_{{{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{err}}}}}}\) :

control error of delta-V

V 0_hov :

initial velocity at hovering delta-V timing

δv :

velocity error

φ :

state transition matrix

ω :

angular velocity vector

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Correspondence to Yuya Mimasu.

Additional information

Yuya Mimasu is a researcher at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). He graduated with his Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from Kyushu University. After graduation, he joined JAXA and has been working on the guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) subsystem of the Hayabusa2 mission, which is the JAXA’s sample return mission from an asteroid. His research interests are astrodynamics and mission analysis around small bodies.

Kent Yoshikawa received his bachelor and master degrees in engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Since 2015, he has been working as an engineer in the Research and Development Directorate, JAXA. His current research interests include astrodynamics, GNC, planetary robotics, and planetary exploration.

Go Ono is a researcher at JAXA. He graduated with his master degree in engineering from the University of Bath in 2011, and with his Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Tokyo in 2014. He joined JAXA in 2015 and has been working on the GNC systems of JAXA’s deep space missions, such as the Hayabusa2 and MMX. His current research interests are astrodynamics and deep space exploration.

Naoko Ogawa received her B.E., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in mathematical engineering and information physics in 2000, 2002, and 2005, respectively, from the University of Tokyo, Japan. From 2004 to 2008, she was a research fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Since 2008, she has been a research engineer at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA. Her current research interests include astrodynamics, mission design, robotics, spacecraft systems, and operation.

Fuyuto Terui received his Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Osaka Prefecture in 1989. He has been a staff member of the Space Technology Research Center of National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan since 1989. He was a visiting scholar of the University of Cambridge, Engineering Department, Control Group from 1994 to 1995. After the reorganization of space agencies in Japan, he has been a staff member of JAXA since 2003, and is now a function manager of the Hayabusa2 project as well as a representative for the Attitude and Orbit Control System of Hayabusa2 spacecraft. His main research field is robust control and image-based guidance, navigation, and control of spacecraft, such as debris removal space robots and asteroid exploration probes.

Yuto Takei received his Ph.D. degree in engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, in 2015. He is a researcher at the Research and Development Directorate, JAXA, and is a system engineer for the Hayabusa2 project. His research interests include astrodynamics, spacecraft system, space robotics, and deep space exploration.

Takanao Saiki received his Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the University of Tokyo, Japan, in 2005. He is an assistant professor at ISAS, JAXA. He is now involved in the Hayabusa2 project. He was a chief developer of an impact system and is currently a project engineer. His research interests include astrodynamics, spacecraft system, and deep space exploration.

Yuichi Tsuda received his Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the University of Tokyo in 2003 and joined the JAXA in 2003 as a research associate. He was a visiting scholar of the Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan and the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder from 2008 to 2009. He was a deputy lead of the IKAROS project, the world’s first interplanetary solar sail mission. He is currently a professor of ISAS/JAXA and also a project manager of the Hayabusa2, an asteroid sample-return mission. His research interests are astrodynamics, spacecraft systems, and deep space exploration.

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Mimasu, Y., Yoshikawa, K., Ono, G. et al. Ground-based low altitude hovering technique of Hayabusa2. Astrodyn 4, 331–347 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42064-020-0082-9

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Keywords

  • Hayabusa2
  • MASCOT
  • low altitude hovering
  • guidance, navigation, and control (GNC)