How self-disclosure in Twitter profiles relate to anonymity consciousness and usage objectives: a cross-cultural study


Social media—particularly services such as Twitter where most content is public—present an interesting balance between social benefits and privacy risks. Twitter users have various usage objectives to gain social benefits. As to privacy risks, we introduce the concept of “anonymity consciousness” as users’ intention to avoid being identified and reached by strangers when engaging in public space. In this study, we present a cross-cultural study to investigate self-disclosure in Twitter profiles, usage objectives on Twitter, and anonymity consciousness and examine how self-disclosure is influenced by usage objectives and anonymity consciousness. Specifically, this study targets Twitter users in the United States, India, and Japan. We find: (a) Indian users are more likely to disclose their personal information and have weaker anonymity consciousness than US and Japanese users, (b) users in every country are less likely to disclose their real name if they have stronger anonymity consciousness, and (c) US users tend to disclose their web-page link and Japanese users tend to disclose their affiliation when advertising themselves on Twitter.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    Ahern, S., Eckles, D., Good, N., King, S., Naaman, M., & Nair, R. (2007). Over-exposed? Privacy patterns and considerations in online and mobile photo sharing. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 357–366).

  2. 2.

    Al-Saggaf, Y., & Nielsen, S. (2014). Self-disclosure on Facebook among female users and its relationship to feelings of loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 460–468.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior: Privacy, personal space, territory, and crowding. Monterey: Brooks Cole.

  4. 4.

    Andalibi, N., Ozturk, P., & Forte, A. (2017). Sensitive self-disclosures, responses, and social support on Instagram. In: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work and social computing (pp. 1485–1500). New York: ACM Press.

  5. 5.

    Asai, A., & Barnlund, D. C. (1998). Boundaries of the unconscious, private, and public self in Japanese and Americans: A cross-cultural comparison. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(4), 431–452.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y. A., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2002). Can you see the real me? Activation and expression of the “true self” on the internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 33–48.

  7. 7.

    Barnlund, D. C. (1989). Communicative styles of Japanese and Americans: Images and realities. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

  8. 8.

    Bazarova, N. N., & Choi, Y. H. (2014). Self-disclosure in social media: Extending the functional approach to disclosure motivations and characteristics on social network sites. Journal of Communication, 64(4), 635–657.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Bellman, S., Johnson, E. J., Kobrin, S. J., & Lohse, G. L. (2004). International differences in information privacy concerns: A global survey of consumers. The Information Society, 20(5), 313–324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Birnholtz, J., Merola, N. A. R., & Paul, A. (2015). Is it weird to still be a virgin: Anonymous, locally targeted questions on Facebook confession boards. In: Proceedings of the 33rd annual ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 2613–2622). New York: ACM Press.

  11. 11.

    Boyd, D. (2007). Why youth 3 social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. Youth, Identity, and Digital Media.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chang, C. W., & Heo, J. (2014). Visiting theories that predict college students self-disclosure on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 79–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Chen, G. M. (1995). Differences in self-disclosure patterns among Americans versus Chinese: A comparative study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26(1), 84–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Chen, G. M. (2015). Why do women bloggers use social media? Recreation and information motivations outweigh engagement motivations. New Media & Society, 17(1), 24–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Chen, R., & Sharma, S. K. (2015). Learning and self-disclosure behavior on social networking sites: The case of Facebook users. European Journal of Information Systems, 24(1), 93–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Chen, X., Li, G., Hu, Y., & Li, Y. (2016). How anonymity influence self-disclosure tendency on sina weibo: An empirical study. Anthropologist, 26(3), 217–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Cheung, C., Lee, Z. W. Y., & Chan, T. K. H. (2015). Self-disclosure in social networking sites. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work & social computing (pp. 74–85).

  18. 18.

    Cheung, C. M. K., Chiu, P. Y., & Lee, M. K. O. (2011). Online social networks: Why do students use facebook? Computers in Human Behavior, 27(4), 1337–1343.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Chiu, C., Hsu, M., & Wang, E. (2006). Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision Support Systems, 42(3), 1872–1888.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Cho, S. E., & Park, H. W. (2013). A qualitative analysis of cross-cultural new media research: SNS use in Asia and the West. Quality & Quantity, 47(4), 2319–2330.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Choi, Y. H., & Bazarova, N. N. (2015). Self-disclosure characteristics and motivations in social media: Extending the functional model to multiple social network sites. Human Communication Research, 41(4), 480–500.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2009). Information disclosure and control on Facebook: Are they two sides of the same coin or two different processes? Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(3), 341–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2010). Privacy and disclosure on Facebook: Youth and adults’ information disclosure and perceptions of privacy risks. University of Guelph.

  24. 24.

    Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2012). Hey mom, what’s on your Facebook? Comparing Facebook disclosure and privacy in adolescents and adults. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(1), 48–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Consedine, N. S., Sabag-Cohen, S., & Krivoshekova, Y. S. (2007). Ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic differences in young adults’ self-disclosure: Who discloses what and to whom? Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(3), 254–263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Correa, D., Silva, L.A., Mondal, M., Benevenuto, F., & Gummadi, K. P. (2015). The many shades of anonymity: Characterizing anonymous social media content. In: Proceedings of the ninth international AAAI conference on weblogs and social media (pp. 71–80).

  27. 27.

    Davenport, S. W., Bergman, S. M., Bergman, J. Z., & Fearrington, M. E. (2014). Twitter versus Facebook: Exploring the role of narcissism in the motives and usage of different social media platforms. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 212–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    De Choudhury, M., Morris, M. R., & White, R. W. (2014). Seeking and sharing health information online: Comparing search engines and social media. In: Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on human factors in computing systems-CHI’14 (pp. 1365–1376). New York: ACM Press.

  29. 29.

    De Choudhury, M., Sharma, S. S., Logar. T., Eekhout, W., & Nielsen, R. C. (2017). Gender and cross-cultural differences in social media disclosures of mental illness. In: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work and social computing (pp. 353–369). ACM Press: New York.

  30. 30.

    Dienlin, T., & Metzger, M. J. (2016). An extended privacy calculus model for SNSs: Analyzing self-disclosure and self-withdrawal in a representative US sample. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 21(5), 368–383.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Dimicco, J., Millen, D. R., Geyer, W., Dugan, C., Brownholtz, B., Muller, M., & Street, R. (2008). Motivations for social networking at work. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work (pp. 711–720).

  32. 32.

    Dinev, T., & Hart, P. (2006). An extended privacy calculus model for e-commerce transactions. Information Systems Research, 17(1), 61–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Donelan, H. (2016). Social media for professional development and networking opportunities in academia. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 40(5), 706–729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Dwyer, C., Hiltz, S. R., & Passerini, K. (2007). Trust and privacy concern within social networking sites: A comparison of Facebook and MySpace. In: AMCIS 2007 proceedings.

  35. 35.

    Ellison, N., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2006). Spatially bounded online social networks and social capital: The role of Facebook. International Communication Association, 36, 1–37.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Fogg, B. J., & Iizawa, D. (2008). Online persuasion in Facebook and Mixi: A cross-cultural comparison. In: International conference on persuasive technology (pp. 35–46). Springer.

  37. 37.

    Forest, A. L., & Wood, J. V. (2012). When social networking is not working: Individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook. Psychological Science, 23(3), 295–302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Goodman, J., & Paolacci, G. (2014). Questioning the turk: Conducting high quality research with Amazon mechanical turk. In: Workshop held at the Association for Consumer Research North American Conference.

  39. 39.

    Hall, E. T., & Hall, M. R. (1989). Understanding cultural differences. Intercultural Press.

  40. 40.

    Harris Interactive (1999) IBM multi-national consumer privacy survey.

  41. 41.

    Hofer, M., & Aubert, V. (2013). Perceived bridging and bonding social capital on Twitter: Differentiating between followers and followees. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2134–2142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values, vol 5. Beverly Hills: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Hofstede, G. (2016). Greet Hofstede analysis.

  44. 44.

    Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, third edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

  45. 45.

    Hollenbaugh, E. E. (2011). Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(1–2), 13–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Hollenbaugh, E. E., & Ferris, A. L. (2014). Facebook self-disclosure: Examining the role of traits, social cohesion, and motives. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 50–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    House, R. J., & Javidan, M. (2004). Overview of globe. In: Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies (pp. 9–28). SAGE Publications.

  48. 48.

    House, R. J., Quigley, N. R., & de Luque, M. S. (2010). Insights from project globe: Extending global advertising research through a contemporary framework. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 111–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Jackson, L. A., & Wang, J. L. (2013). Cultural differences in social networking site use: A comparative study of China and the United States. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 910–921.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Java, A., Song, X., Finin, T., & Tseng, B. (2007). Why we Twitter: Understanding microblogging usage and communities. In: Proceedings of the 9th WebKDD and 1st SNA-KDD 2007 workshop on web mining and social network analysis (pp. 56–65). ACM.

  51. 51.

    Ji, Y. G., Hwangbo, H., Yi, J. S., Rau, P. L. P., Fang, X., & Ling, C. (2010). The influence of cultural differences on the use of social network services and the formation of social capital. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 26(11–12), 1100–1121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Joinson, A. N. (2007). Disinhibition and the internet. In: Psychology and the internet (second edition) (pp. 75–92).

  53. 53.

    Joinson, A. N. (2008). Looking at, looking up or keeping up with people? Motives and uses of Facebook. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, ACM (pp. 1027–1036). ACM.

  54. 54.

    Joinson, A. N., & Paine, C. B. (2012). Self-disclosure, privacy and the internet. Oxford handbook of Iiternet psychology (pp. 235–250). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Joinson, A. N., Reips, U. D., Buchanan, T., & Schofield, C. B. P. (2010). Privacy, trust, and self-disclosure online. Human–Computer Interaction, 25(1), 1–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Kang, R., Brown, S., & Kiesler, S. (2013). Why do people seek anonymity on the internet? In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 2657–2666). New York: ACM Press.

  57. 57.

    Kang, R., Brown, S., Dabbish, L., & Kiesler, S. (2014). Privacy attitudes of mechanical turk workers and the U.S. public. In: SOUPS ’14: Proceedings of the tenth symposium on usable privacy and security (pp. 37–49).

  58. 58.

    Kang, R., Dabbish, L. A., & Sutton, K. (2016). Strangers on your phone: Why people use anonymous communication applications. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work & social computing (pp. 359–370). New York: ACM Press.

  59. 59.

    Keipi, T., Oksanen, A., & Räsänen, P. (2015). Who prefers anonymous self-expression online? A survey-based study of Finns aged 15–30 years. Information, Communication & Society, 18(6), 717–732.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Kim, Y., Sohn, D., & Choi, S. M. (2011). Cultural difference in motivations for using social network sites: A comparative study of American and Korean college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 365–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Krasnova, H., Kolesnikova, E., Guenther, O., & Günther, O. (2009). It won’t happen to me: Self-disclosure in online social networks. In: Amcis 2009 proceedings (p. 343).

  62. 62.

    Krasnova, H., Spiekermann, S., Koroleva, K., & Hildebrand, T. (2010). Online social networks: Why we disclose. Journal of Information Technology, 25(2), 109–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Krasnova, H., Veltri, N. F., & Günther, O. (2012). Self-disclosure and privacy calculus on social networking sites: The role of culture. Business and Information Systems Engineering, 4(3), 127–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Kumaraguru, P., & Cranor, L. (2005). Privacy in India: Attitudes and awareness. In: International workshop on privacy enhancing technologies (pp. 243–258). Springer.

  65. 65.

    Kwak, H., Lee, C., Park, H., & Moon, S. (2010). What is Twitter, a social network or a news media? In: Proceedings of the 19th international conference on world wide web (pp. 591–600). ACM.

  66. 66.

    Lai, C. Y., & Yang, H. L. (2014). Determinants of individuals’ self-disclosure and instant information sharing behavior in micro-blogging. New Media & Society, 17(9), 1454–1472.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Lampe, C., Ellison, N., & Steinfield, C. (2006). A Face(book) in the crowd: Social searching vs. social browsing. In: Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on computer supported cooperative work (pp. 167–170). ACM.

  68. 68.

    Lee, H. R., Lee, H. E., Choi, J., Kim, J. H., & Han, H. L. (2014). Social media use, body image, and psychological well-being: A cross-cultural comparison of Korea and the United States. Journal of Health Communication, 19(12), 1343–1358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Lee, S. L., Kim, J. A., Golden, K. J., Kim, J. H., & Park, M. S. A. (2016). A cross-cultural examination of SNS usage intensity and managing interpersonal relationships online: The role of culture and the autonomous-related self-construal. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Leftheriotis, I., & Giannakos, M. N. (2014). Using social media for work: Losing your time or improving your work? Computers in Human Behavior, 31(1), 134–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Lewis, C. C., & George, J. F. (2008). Cross-cultural deception in social networking sites and face-to-face communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6), 2945–2964.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Lin, K. Y., & Lu, H. P. (2011). Why people use social networking sites: An empirical study integrating network externalities and motivation theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1152–1161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Lin, R., & Utz, S. (2017). Self-disclosure on SNS: Do disclosure intimacy and narrativity influence interpersonal closeness and social attraction? Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 426–436.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Liu, D., & Brown, B. B. (2014). Self-disclosure on social networking sites, positive feedback, and social capital among Chinese college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 213–219.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Liu, Z., Min, Q., Zhai, Q., & Smyth, R. (2016). Self-disclosure in Chinese micro-blogging: A social exchange theory perspective. Information & Management, 53(1), 53–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Ma, X., Hancock, J., & Naaman, M. (2016). Anonymity, intimacy and self-disclosure in social media. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 3857–3869).

  77. 77.

    Malhotra, N. K., Kim, S. S., & Agarwal, J. (2004). Internet users’ information privacy concerns (IUIPC): The construct, the scale, and a causal model. Information Systems Research, 15(4), 336–355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Margulis, S. T. (1977). Conceptions of privacy: Current status and next steps. Journal of Social Issues, 33(3), 5–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Margulis, S. T. (2011). Three theories of privacy: An overview. In: Privacy online: Perspectives on privacy and self-disclosure in the social web, Chap 2 (pp. 9–17). Springer.

  80. 80.

    Marwick, A. E., & Boyd, D. (2011). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New Media & Society, 13(1), 114–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Marx, G. T. (1999). What’s in a name? Some reflections on the sociology of anonymity. The Information Society, 15(2), 99–112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Masur, P. K., & Scharkow, M. (2016). Disclosure management on social network sites: Individual privacy perceptions and user-directed privacy strategies. Social Media + Society, 2(1), 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Maynard, M. L., & Taylor, C. R. (1996). A comparative analysis of Japanese and US attitudes toward direct marketing. Journal of Direct Marketing, 10(1), 34–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Mcknight, D. H., Choudhury, V., & Kacmar, C. (2002). The impact of initial customer trust on intentions to transact with web site: A trust building model. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3), 297–323.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Milberg, S. J., Smith, H. J., & Burke, S. J. (2000). Information privacy: Corporate management and national regulation. Organization Science, 11(1), 35–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Morio, H., & Buchholz, C. (2009). How anonymous are you online? Examining online social behaviors from a cross-cultural perspective. AI & Society, 23(2), 297–307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Nakanishi, M. (1986). Perceptions of self-disclosure in initial interaction: A Japanese sample. Human Communication Research, 13(2), 167–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Nakayama, M. (2014). The present and future of Yahoo!. Crowd sourcing (only in Japanese). Technical Report.

  89. 89.

    Nambisan, S., & Baron, R. A. (2007). Interactions in virtual customer environments: Implications for product support and customer relationship management. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(2), 42–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Naslund, J. A., Grande, S. W., Aschbrenner, K. A., & Elwyn, G. (2014). Naturally occurring peer support through social media: The experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube. PLoS One, 9(10), e110171–e110171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Nemec Zlatolas, L., Welzer, T., Heričko, M., & Hölbl, M. (2015). Privacy antecedents for SNS self-disclosure: The case of Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 158–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Oh, S., & Syn, S. Y. (2015). Motivations for sharing information and social support in social media: A comparative analysis of Facebook, Twitter, Delicious, YouTube, and Flickr. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66(10), 2045–2060.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Page, R. (2012). The linguistics of self-branding and micro-celebrity in Twitter: The role of hashtags. Discourse & Communication, 6(2), 181–201.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Paolacci, G., & Chandler, J. (2014). Inside the turk: Understanding mechanical turk as a participant pool. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(3), 184–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Patil, S., & Lai, J. (2005). Who gets to know what when: Configuring privacy permissions in an awareness application. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 101–110). New York: ACM.

  96. 96.

    Peddinti, S. T., Ross, K. W., & Cappos, J. (2014). On the internet, nobody knows you’re a dog: A Twitter case study of anonymity in social networks. In: Proceedings of the second ACM conference on online social networks (pp. 83–93). ACM.

  97. 97.

    Peterson, K., & Siek, K. A. (2009). Analysis of information disclosure on a social networking site. In: International conference on online communities and social computing (pp. 256–264). Springer.

  98. 98.

    Petronio, S., & Altman, I. (2002). Boundaries of privacy: Dialectics of disclosure. Suny Press.

  99. 99.

    Qian, H., & Scott, C. R. (2007). Anonymity and self-disclosure on weblogs. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1428–1451.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Rainie, L., Kiesler, S., Kang, R., Madden, M., Duggan, M., Brown, S., et al. (2013). Anonymity, privacy, and security online. Pew Research Center, 5.

  101. 101.

    Reagon, B. J. (2013). Introducing and critiquing national, societal and regional culture frameworks. In T. Patel (Ed.), Cross-cultural management: A transactional approach, Chap 3 (pp. 37–58). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Reed, P. J., Spiro, E. S., & Butts, C. T. (2015). Using Facebook data to examine culture and self-disclosure behaviors. In: iConference 2015 proceedings.

  103. 103.

    Reed, P. J., Spiro, E. S., & Butts, C. T. (2016). Thumbs up for privacy? Differences in online self-disclosure behavior across national cultures. Social Science Research, 59, 155–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Rui, J., & Stefanone, M. A. (2013). Strategic self-presentation online: A cross-cultural study. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 110–118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Smith, H. J., Milberg, S. J., & Burke, S. J. (1996). Information privacy: Measuring individuals’ concerns about organizational practices. MIS Quarterly, 20(2), 167–196.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Special, W. P., & Li-Barber, K. T. (2012). Self-disclosure and student satisfaction with Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 624–630.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Stavros, C., Meng, M. D., Westberg, K., & Farrelly, F. (2014). Understanding fan motivation for interacting on social media. Sport Management Review, 17(4), 455–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Stuart, H. C., Dabbish, L., Kiesler, S., Kinnaird, P., & Kang, R. (2012). Social transparency in networked information exchange: A framework and research question. In: Proceedings of the ACM 2012 conference on computer supported cooperative work (pp. 451–460). New York: ACM Press.

  109. 109.

    Stutzman, F., Vitak, J., Ellison, N. B., Gray, R., & Lampe, C. (2012). Privacy in interaction: Exploring disclosure and social capital in Facebook. In: Proceedings of the sixth international AAAI conference on weblogs and social media (pp. 330–337).

  110. 110.

    Ting-Toomey, S. (1991). Intimacy expressions in three cultures: France, Japan, and the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15(1), 29–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Trepte, S., & Masur, P. K. (2016). Cultural differences in social media use, privacy, and self-disclosure. Research report on a multicultural survey study. Technical Report.

  112. 112.

    Tsai, J. Y., Kelley, P., Drielsma, P., Cranor, L. F., Hong, J., & Sadeh, N. (2009). Who’s viewed you? The impact of feedback in a mobile location-sharing application. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 2003–2012).

  113. 113.

    Tsai, J. Y., Kelley, P. G., Cranor, L. F., & Sadeh, N. (2010). Location-sharing technologies: Privacy risks and controls. In: Research conference on communication, information and internet policy (TPRC), vol 6. (pp. 119–151).

  114. 114.

    Tsay-Vogel, M., Shanahan, J., & Signorielli, N. (2016). Social media cultivating perceptions of privacy: A 5-year analysis of privacy attitudes and self-disclosure behaviors among Facebook users. New Media & Society.

    Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Tung, R. L. (2008). The cross-cultural research imperative: The need to balance cross-national and intra-national diversity. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(1), 41–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Valenzuela, S., Park, N., & Kee, K. F. (2009). Is there social capital in a social network site? Facebook use and college students’ life satisfaction, trust, and participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(4), 875–901.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Varnali, K., & Toker, A. (2015). Self-disclosure on social networking sites. Social Behavior and Personality, 43(1), 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Vasalou, A., Joinson, A. N., & Courvoisier, D. (2010). Cultural differences, experience with social networks and the nature of “true commitment" in Facebook. International Journal of Human–Computer Studies, 68(10), 719–728.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Walrave, M., Vanwesenbeeck, I., & Heirman, W. (2012). Connecting and protecting? Comparing predictors of self-disclosure and privacy settings use between adolescents and adults. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 6(1), article 3.

    Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Wang, Y. C., Burke, M., & Kraut, R. E. (2016). Modeling self-disclosure in social networking sites. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work & social computing (pp. 74–85). New York: ACM Press.

  121. 121.

    Westin, A. F. (1968). Privacy and freedom. Washington and Lee Law Review, 25(1), 166.

    Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Wheeless, L. R. (1978). A follow-up study of the relationships among trust, disclosure, and interpersonal solidarity. Human Communication Research, 4(2), 143–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    World Bank (2015). Data. Accessed 29 July 2015.

  124. 124.

    Wu, S., Hofman, J. M., Mason, W. A., & Watts, D. J. (2011). Who says what to whom on Twitter. In: Proceedings of the 20th international conference on world wide web (pp. 705–714). ACM.

  125. 125.

    Yang, J., Morris, M. R., Teevan, J., Adamic, L. A., & Ackerman, M. S. (2011). Culture matters: A survey study of social Q&A behavior. In: Proceedings of the fifth international AAAI conference on weblogs and social media (pp. 409–416).

  126. 126.

    Zhang, K., & Kizilcec, F. (2014). Anonymity in social media: Effects of content controversiality and social endorsement on sharing behavior. In: Proceedings of the eighth International AAAI conference on weblogs and social media (pp. 643–646).

  127. 127.

    Zhao, C., & Jiang, G. (2011). Cultural differences on visual self-presentation through social networking site profile images. In: Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1129–1132). New York: ACM Press.

  128. 128.

    Zhao, D., & Rosson, M. B. (2009). How and why people Twitter: The role that micro-blogging plays in informal communication at work. In: Proceedings of the ACM 2009 international conference on supporting group work (pp. 243–252).

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tomu Tominaga.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tominaga, T., Hijikata, Y. & Konstan, J.A. How self-disclosure in Twitter profiles relate to anonymity consciousness and usage objectives: a cross-cultural study. J Comput Soc Sc 1, 391–435 (2018).

Download citation


  • Self-disclosure
  • Anonymity consciousness
  • Usage objectives
  • Cross-cultural study
  • Twitter