Iodine nutrition in pregnant and breastfeeding women: sufficiency, deficiency, and supplementation
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Iodine is a micronutrient used by the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which manage different aspects of body metabolism. Humans depend on exogenous sources of iodine to maintain the normal concentration of thyroid hormones. Pregnancy alters iodine turnover and is associated with significant changes in thyroid function. Daily iodine requirement during pregnancy increases to 250 μg, compared with 150 μg for nonpregnant women. According to recent guidelines of scientific organizations, to improve maternal thyroid status and to prevent child neurocognitive defects, all pregnant and breastfeeding women should take 150 μg of iodine supplementation, not only in iodine-deficient regions but also in iodine-sufficient areas. However, some recent studies have confirmed that iodine supplementation of mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women has no clear benefits as concerns maternal thyroid function or child neurodevelopment.
KeywordsIodine supplementation Pregnancy Lactation Iodine deficiency Iodine status
The authors wish to acknowledge Ms. Niloofar Shiva for her critical editing of the English grammar and syntax of the manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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