pp 1–10 | Cite as

Serum vitamin D in obese and overweight subjects according to estimated glomerular filtration rate

  • Athanasios Kitsos
  • Evangelia Dounousi
  • Rigas Kalaitzidis
  • Anna Challa
  • Kostas C. Siamopoulos
  • Stelios Tigas
Original Article



Obesity and renal disease are both associated with low serum 25(OH)D. The aims of the present study were to (a) assess vitamin D status and compare serum vitamin D levels in overweight/obese versus normal-weight individuals according to eGFR and (b) assess the role of 25(OH)D in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT).


Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and phosphate were measured in 104 subjects with BMI > 25 kg/m2. Participants were categorized according to eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2): G1 ≥ 60 (n = 53), G2 30–59 (n = 35), and G3 15–29 (n = 16). Fifty normal-weight individuals with comparable eGFR served as controls: G1-nw (n = 23), G2-nw (n = 18), and G3-nw (n = 9).


25(OH)D levels were lower in G1 compared to those in G1-nw (21.7 ± 6.5 vs 26.5 ± 7.0 ng/ml, p = 0.005), G2 versus G2-nw (19.0 ± 6.0 vs 25.0 ± 5.2 ng/ml, p = 0.001), and G3 vs G3-nw (15.8 ± 4.7 vs 20.3 ± 4.5 ng/ml, p = 0.030). 1,25(OH)2D and PTH levels were similar in obese/overweight versus normal-weight individuals in each of the eGFR categories. Factors independently associated with low 25(OH)D levels were BMI > 25 kg/m2, lower eGFR, and female gender. Mean 25(OH)D levels were < 30 ng/ml in both overweight and controls, in all eGFR groups. SHPT was universally observed when eGFR was < 30 ml/min/1.73m2.


Lower serum 25(OH)D but similar 1,25(OH)2D and PTH levels were observed in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight individuals. Even though vitamin D insufficiency was common across all eGFR categories, secondary hyperparathyroidism was more prevalent as eGFR declined.


Vitamin D 25(OH)D 1,25(OH)2PTH Obesity Secondary hyperparathyroidism Chronic kidney disease 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Ioannina University Hospital.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Submission declaration and verification

This work has not been published previously and it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The publication is approved by all authors and, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.


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Copyright information

© Hellenic Endocrine Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios Kitsos
    • 1
  • Evangelia Dounousi
    • 1
  • Rigas Kalaitzidis
    • 1
  • Anna Challa
    • 2
  • Kostas C. Siamopoulos
    • 1
  • Stelios Tigas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of NephrologyUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece
  2. 2.Pediatric Research Laboratory, Child Health DepartmentUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece
  3. 3.Department of EndocrinologyUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

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