Journal of Flow Chemistry

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 35–43 | Cite as

Catalyst-free reductive amination of levulinic acid to N-substituted pyrrolidinones with formic acid in continuous-flow microreactor

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Abstract

The reductive amination of levulinic acid to N-substituted pyrrolidinones was performed in a continuous-flow microreactor (CFMR) in high yield, using formic acid as hydrogen source and acetonitrile as the reaction solvent. The developed protocol allows the avoidance of high boiling solvents such as DMSO and the additive triethylamine, more commonly associated with this synthetic transformation. As a result, the reaction products are more readily separated from the low boiling solvent.

Graphical abstract

The continuous reductive amination of levulinic acid with amines to N-substituted pyrrolidones was performed in a continuous-flow microreactor in high yield, using formic acid as hydrogen source and acetonitrile as the reaction solvent under catalyst-free conditions.

Keywords

Continuous-flow microreactor Levulinic acid Amines Reductive amination N-substituted pyrrolidinones 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21476057), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (CN) (Grant No. B2016202393, B2015202284), and the Program for the Top Young Innovative Talents of Hebei Province (CN) (Grant No. BJ2017010) for financial support. We thank Dr. Charlotte Wiles (Chief Executive Officer of Chemtrix BV, the Netherlands) for revising the manuscript.

Supplementary material

41981_2018_5_MOESM1_ESM.docx (702 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 701 kb)

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical Engineering and TechnologyHebei University of TechnologyTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Energy Conservation of Chemical Process Integration and Resources UtilizationHebei University of TechnologyTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

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