Skip to main content

Red mud nano-fines potential for improving the geotechnical properties of ameliorated reconstituted black cotton soil

Abstract

Nearly 51.8 million hectares of land area in India is covered with expansive soils (mainly black cotton soil (BCS)). The property of the expansive soils, in general, is that they are very hard when in dry state, but they lose all of their strength when in wet state. In light of this property, these soils pose problems worldwide and a serious challenge to overcome for the Geotechnical Engineers. One of the most important aspects for construction purposes is soil stabilization, because stabilization regime improves engineering properties of the soil like volume stability, strength and durability. Red mud is a byproduct in the process of extraction of alumina from bauxite, which has over 82% of its mass in the nano scale. The process is called Bayer’s process. It is an insoluble product and is generated after digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure. In this research work, characteristic properties of nanostructured red mud (NRM) were determined and its possible use as a supplementary cement in the expansive soil stabilization was studied. The red mud average particle size was reduced to nano-red mud (NRM) by ball-milling and passing the material through 150 nm sieve to increase its reactive surface. Basic properties like specific gravity, particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, OMC and MDD are determined in conformity with the Indian Standard Codes, British Standard and American Standards and test results are discussed in geotechnical point of view. Furthermore, intelligent models were predicted using the genetic programming, artificial neural network and evolutionary polynomial regression techniques. Generally, the results showed that NRM has the potential to improve the hydro-mechanical properties of the ameliorated BCS especially CBR and UCS to be used a pavement compacted subgrade material and in landfill liner construction with strength improvements exceeding those given by design standards. The intelligent models performed optimally with ANN with R2 of 88% outperforming GP and EPR in the prediction of UCS and GP with R2 of 98% outperforming ANN and EPR in the CBR prediction. But GP generated a closed form equation that allows its flexibility to be applied manually as well as intelligently and with a minimal speed of 3 h instead 12 h average speed of machine learning techniques.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
Fig. 29
Fig. 30

Data availability

The data supporting the results of this research paper have been reported in the manuscript.

References

  • Ahmed S, Tao Meng T, Taha M (2020) Utilization of red mud for producing a high strength binder by composition optimization and nano strengthening. Nanotechnol Rev 9:396–409. https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2020-0029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aneke FI, Onyelowe KC (2022) Environmental sustainability of fly ash and recycled crushed glass blends: an alternative to natural clay for masonry bricks production. Int J Appl Sci Eng 19(1):1–18. https://doi.org/10.6703/IJASE.202203_19(1).007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ashraf MS, Ghouleh Z, Shao Y (2019) Production of eco-cement exclusively from municipal solid waste incineration residues. Resour Conserv Recycl 149:332–342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ASTM E2809-13 (2013) Standard guide for using scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry in forensic paint examinations. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  • ASTM (2019) Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken. ASTM standard C618-19

  • BS 1377-2, 3 (1990) Methods of testing soils for civil engineering purposes. British Standard Institute, London

  • BS 1924-2 (2018) Hydraulically bound and stabilized materials for civil engineering purposes-Sample preparation and testing of materials during and after treatment. British Standard Institute, London

  • BS 8615-1 (2019) Specification for pozzolanic materials for use with Portland cement. Natural pozzolana and natural calcined pozzolana. British Standard International, London

  • Devi CN, Selvaraj N, Mahesh V (2014) Nano red mud—synthesis and characterization. In: 5th international & 26th all India manufacturing technology, design and research conference (AIMTDR 2014) December 12th–14th, 2014, IIT Guwahati, Assam

  • Höllen D, Klammer D, Letofsky-Papst I et al (2016) Synthesis of hierarchically structured materials: microporous diatoms and nanoporous hydroxyaluminosilicate. Nanotechnol Environ Eng 1:9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41204-016-0009-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IS: 2720 (Part 40) (1977) Methods of test for soils: determination of free swell index of soils. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi

  • IS: 2720 (Part 3) (1980) Methods of test for soils: determination of specific gravity. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi

  • IS: 2720 (Part 7) (1980) Methods of test for soils: determination of water content—dry density relation using light compaction. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi

  • IS: 2720 (Part 4) (1985) Methods of test for soils: determination of grain size analysis. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi

  • IS: 2720 (Part 5) (1985) Methods of test for soils: determination of liquid and plastic limit. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi

  • IS: 2720 (Part 16) (1987). Methods of Test for Soils: Determination of CBR Value, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi, India.

  • Li X, Kong L, Qi T, Zhou Q, Peng Z, Liu G (2013) Effect of alumogoethite in Bayer digestion process of high-iron gibbsitic bauxite. Chin J Nonferrous Metals 23(2):543–548

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Usungedo T (2021) Microstructure, 3-chemical moduli (3CM) and micro-spectral analyses of HSDA-treated black cotton soil for sustainable subgrade construction. Mater Today: Proc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.10.211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Ebid AM, Nwobia LI, Obianyo II (2021a) Shrinkage limit multi-AI-based predictive models for sustainable utilization of activated rice husk ash for treating expansive pavement subgrade. Transp Infrastruct Geotechnol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40515-021-00199-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Onyia ME, Van Bui D, Firoozi AA, Amhadi T (2021b) Analytics of swelling potential on highly expansive (plastic) clayey soils behavior for sustainable admixture stabilization. Építőanyag-J Silicate Based Composite Mater 73(3):86–90. https://doi.org/10.14382/epitoanyag-jsbcm.2021.13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Jalal FE, Iqbal M, Rehman ZU, Ibe K (2021c) Intelligent modeling of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of hybrid cement-modified unsaturated soil with nanostructured quarry fines inclusion. Innov Infrastruct Solut. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-021-00682-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Ebid AM, Nwobia LI (2021d) Predictive models of volumetric stability (durability) and erodibility of lateritic soil treated with different nanotextured bio-ashes with application of loss of strength on immersion; GP, ANN and EPR performance study. Clean Mater 1(1):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clema.2021.100006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Ebid AM, Onyia ME, Nwobia LI (2021e) Predicting nanocomposite binder improved unsaturated soil UCS using genetic programming. Nanotechnol Environ Eng 6(2):39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41204-021-00134-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Gnananandarao T, Nwa-David C (2021f) Sensitivity analysis and prediction of erodibility of treated unsaturated soil modified with nanostructured fines of quarry dust using novel artificial neural network. Nanotechnol Environ Eng 6(2):37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41204-021-00131-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Onyia ME, Aneke FI, Bui-Van D, Rollins KM (2021g) Assessment of compressive strength, durability, and erodibility of quarry dust-based geopolymer cement stabilized expansive soil. Multiscale Multidiscip Model Exp Des. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41939-021-00104-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Shakeri J, Amini-Khoshalan H, Usungedo TF, Alimoradi-Jazi M (2022a) Computational modeling of desiccation properties (CW, LS, and VS) of waste-based activated ash-treated black cotton soil for sustainable subgrade using artificial neural network, gray-wolf, and moth-flame optimization techniques. Adv Mater Sci Eng. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4602064

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Eidgahee-Rezazadeh D, Jahangir H, Aneke FI, Nwobia LI (2022b) Forecasting shear parameters, and sensitivity and error analyses of treated subgrade soil. Transp Infrastruct Geotechnol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40515-022-00225-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Aneke FI, Ebid AM, Nwobia LI (2022c) Different AI predictive models for pavement subgrade stiffness and resilient deformation of geopolymer cement-treated lateritic soil with ordinary cement addition. Int J Pavement Res Technol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42947-022-00185-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onyelowe KC, Tome S, Ebid AM, Usungedo T, Van Bui D, Etim RK, Onuoha IC, Attah IC (2022d) Effect of desiccation on ashcrete (HSDA)-treated soft soil used as flexible pavement foundation; zero carbon stabilizer approach. Int J Low-Carbon Technol. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijlct/ctac042

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richard S, Rajadurai JS, Manikandan V, Thanu MC, Arumugaprabu V, Johnson RDJ (2019) Study of tribological properties of nano-sized red mud particle-reinforced polyester composites. Trans Indian Inst Met. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-019-01694-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh S, Aswath MU, Biswas RD, Ranganath RV, Choudhary HK, Kumar R, Sahoo B (2019) Role of iron in the enhanced reactivity of pulverized Red mud: analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Case Stud Constr Mater 11:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2019.e00266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Y, Qu Y, Wu S (2001) Engineering geological properties and comprehensive utilization of the solid waste (red mud) in aluminium industry. Environ Geol 41:249–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540100399

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kennedy C. Onyelowe.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have not conflicting interests in the publication of this manuscript.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 15 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Alisha, S.S., Dumpa, V., Sreenivasulu, V. et al. Red mud nano-fines potential for improving the geotechnical properties of ameliorated reconstituted black cotton soil. Multiscale and Multidiscip. Model. Exp. and Des. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41939-022-00127-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41939-022-00127-8

Keywords

  • Soil stabilization
  • Expansive soil
  • Micro-mechanical properties
  • Nano red mud
  • Bayer’s process