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A single-end fault identification system for transmission lines connected with DFSC

Abstract

The protection of dual-fixed series compensated (DFSC) power transmission lines is an additional problematical task than uncompensated (UCPTLs) power transmission lines owing to the consequence of non-linearity of the effectual impedance of DFSC lines, faults occurring near the boundary of DFSCPTLs, and multilocation faults. A system that can overcome these problems and still work powerfully is a hybrid protection system (HPS). Hence, in this work, two schemes Fourier analysis algorithm (FAA) and wavelet analysis algorithm (WAA) are employed for the protection of DFSCPTLs. Fourier analysis has been used to process the three-phase current signals of the DFSCPTLs measured at the relaying terminal only. The size of 501 samples of three-phase current signals is selected and the coefficient of FAA is calculated. The resultant is then given as input to the WAA. A shifting interface of 16 samples is chosen, and approximate WAA is calculated up to 5 levels using haar mother wavelet. The DFSCPTL is modelled and validated with MATLAB software with a DFSC power transmission system. The proposed HPS has been tested with a variety of fault circumstances, such as multilocation faults, close-in faults, remote-end faults, variation in fault type, fault inception time, fault location, power system voltage and frequency, short circuit capacity of the generator, capacitor bank switching, reactor strings switching, current transformer saturation, and considering noisy current signals. In addition, the proposed HPS has been demonstrated successfully with an adapted WSCC 3-machine 9-bus DFSCPTL system and with renewable energy source incorporation into the DFSCPTL system. The HPS detects, classifies, and trips the faulty phase accurately with quick effect. The accuracy of HPS is 100% for all the tested fault cases. The benefit of this HPS is that there is no need to change the threshold values for the DFSCPTL system and UCPTLs. Hence, the proposed HPS can be executed in an authentic power transmission system network efficiently.

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All the data required are included in the manuscript.

Abbreviations

Φ-A:

Phase-A

Φ-B:

Phase-B

Φ-C:

Phase-C

DFSCPTL:

Dual-fixed series compensated power transmission line

DIV:

Detection index value

DT:

Detection time

DFT:

Discrete Fourier transform

FPCT:

Faulty phase classification time

FCU:

Fault classification unit

FIT:

Fault inception time

SNR:

Signal to noise ratio

TLs:

Transmission lines

UCPTL:

Uncompensated power transmission line

FI:

Fault impedance

GVA:

Giga volt ampere

G:

Ground

LOF:

Location of fault

LST:

Load switching time

DWT:

Discrete wavelet transform

MLF:

Multilocation faults

SCL:

Short circuit limit of generator

GV, GF:

Generating voltage, generating frequency

THV:

Threshold value

WGN:

White Gaussian noise

FT:

Fault type

MCFSCPTL:

Mid-point connected fixed series compensated power transmission line

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Funding

The authors declare that no fund was received to perform this research.

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Authors

Contributions

TY wrote the initial draft of the manuscript under the supervision of SA and GK. All authors developed the ideas and frameworks for the manuscript. All authors read and approved this version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gaurav Kapoor.

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This work has not received specific support from any funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors, and the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Yadav, T., Ali, S. & Kapoor, G. A single-end fault identification system for transmission lines connected with DFSC. Multiscale and Multidiscip. Model. Exp. and Des. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41939-022-00122-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41939-022-00122-z

Keywords

  • Fault detection
  • Fault classification
  • Phase type classification
  • Fourier analysis
  • Transmission line relaying
  • Series compensation
  • Wavelet analysis