Multiscale modeling of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites in low-temperature arctic conditions

Abstract

Exploration of new frontiers within the Arctic region introduces new challenges for the structural materials used in naval applications. This compels research on the influence of Arctic temperatures (from room temperature to \(-~70\,\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\)) on the mechanical behavior of composites. In the current investigation, the effects of low temperatures on the axial stiffness of graphite/epoxy composites with unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic layups are studied using MAC/GMC, a micromechanical simulation tool developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center. Parametric studies were conducted to understand how various constituent material properties of a graphite/epoxy laminate influence the global, homogenized, axial stiffness of the composite subjected to arctic conditions. MAC/GMC provided accurate simulation results as compared with published experimental data. Results revealed that the increase in axial stiffness of carbon fibers is the main mechanism responsible for the overall increase in the global axial stiffness of the laminated composites at low temperature. The current research effort expands the understanding of how composites respond and behave in such extreme, low-temperature environments.

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Acknowledgements

K.T. Tan acknowledges the research grant #N00014-16-1-3202 provided by the Office of Naval Research (ONR Program Manager: Dr. Yapa Rajapakse).

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Cross, D.R., Tan, K.T., Pineda, E.J. et al. Multiscale modeling of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites in low-temperature arctic conditions. Multiscale and Multidiscip. Model. Exp. and Des. 1, 239–254 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41939-018-0016-x

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Keywords

  • Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)
  • Micromechanical modeling
  • Modulus
  • Low temperature
  • Laminate layups