Skip to main content
Log in

IPFS enabled blockchain for smart cities

  • Original Research
  • Published:
International Journal of Information Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Blockchain has emerged as one of the finest and promising technologies in the last decade. Bitcoin started the journey in 2008 and soon blockchain technology paved the way much beyond cryptocurrencies in form of smart contracts deployment, permissioned blockchains, hyperledger, ethereum and the list is endless, so to say with a multitude of variants evolving across. This expansion of the implementations has been across domains, hitherto unthought-of. One such domain with definite connects in future are the evolving smart cities across the countries. Smart city concept pullulates to step-up functional efficiency, share information with the users and better the citizen welfare enabled by information and communication technologies (ICT). The rapidly evolving growth of the smart cities thus has thrown multiple challenges to the widely used traditional way of ensuring seamless, secure, robust exchange of information between devices and entities in the smart city ecosystem. This paper builds upon the concepts of blockchain, smart cities, and InterPlanetary File System and further explores possibilities of realizing blockchain enabled smart cities on InterPlanetary File System architecture concluded by challenges ahead. The proposed architecture is simulated with results in a limited environment.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Dudhe PV, Kadam NV, Hushangabade RM , Deshmukh MS (2017) Internet of things (IOT): an overview and its applications. In: 2017 International Conference on Energy, Communication, Data Analytics and Soft Computing (ICECDS), Chennai, 2017, pp. 2650–2653,

  2. Rajab H, Cinkelr T, “IoT based Smart Cities” (2018) International symposium on networks, computers and communications (ISNCC). Rome 2018:1–4

    Google Scholar 

  3. Rashid A , Siddique MJ (2019) Smart contracts integration between blockchain and internet of things: opportunities and challenges. In: 2019 2nd international conference on advancements in computational sciences (ICACS), Lahore, Pakistan, pp 1–9.

  4. Hegedus P (2018) Towards analyzing the complexity landscape of solidity based ethereum smart contracts. In: 2018 IEEE/ACM 1st International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Engineering for Blockchain (WETSEB), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2018, pp. 35–39

  5. Muralidharan S, Ko H (2019) An InterPlanetary file system (IPFS) based IoT framework. In: 2019 IEEE international conference on consumer electronics (ICCE), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 2019, pp. 1–2.

  6. IPFS-Content Addressed, Versioned, P2P File System at, Accessed on 12 Jun 2020

  7. Pavithran D, Thomas R (2018) A survey on analyzing bitcoin transactions. In: 2018 Fifth HCT Information Technology Trends (ITT), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2018, pp. 227–231.

  8. “ The ridiculous amount of energy It takes to run bitcoin” by Peter Farley at, Accessed on 02 Jun 2020

  9. Karafiloski E, Mishev A (2017) Blockchain solutions for big data challenges: a literature review. In: IEEE Eurocon 2017—17th International Conference on Smart Technologies, Ohrid, 2017, pp. 763–768,

  10. Nyaletey E, Parizi RM, Zhang Q, Choo KR (2019) BlockIPFS—blockchain-enabled interplanetary file system for forensic and trusted data traceability. In: 2019 IEEE international conference on blockchain (Blockchain), Atlanta, GA, USA, pp. 18–25,

  11. Steichen M, Fiz B, Norvill R, Shbair W, State R (2018) Blockchain-based, decentralized access control for IPFS. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData), Halifax, NS, Canada, 2018, pp. 1499–1506,

  12. Zichichi M, Ferretti S, D'Angelo G (2020) A distributed ledger based infrastructure for smart transportation system and social good: 1–6.

  13. Rehman M, et al. (2020) A blockchain based distributed vehicular network architecture for smart cities. In: Barolli L, Amato F, Moscato F, Enokido T, Takizawa M (eds) Web, artificial intelligence and network applications. WAINA 2020. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1150. Springer, Cham.

  14. Singh M, Kim S (2018) Branch based blockchain technology in intelligent vehicle. Comput Netw 145:219–231

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Muralidharan S, Song G , Ko H (2019) Monitoring and managing IoT applications in smart cities using kubernetes. Cloud Comput

  16. Medel V, Rana O, Bañares JÁ, Arronategui U (2016) Modelling performance and resource management in kubernetes. In: 2016 IEEE/ACM 9th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC), Shanghai, 2016, pp. 257–262.

  17. Li S (2018) Application of blockchain technology in smart city infrastructure. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT), Xi'an, 2018, pp. 276–2766

  18. Kaur E, Oza A (2020) Blockchain-based multi-organization taxonomy for smart cities. SN Appl Sci 2:440.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Marco Z, Ioannis C, Andrea V (2019) Data collection, storage and processing for water monitoring based on IoT, and blockchain technologies at Accessed 15 June 2020

  20. Fast Ethereum RPC client for testing and development available at, Accessed on 15 Feb 2020.

  21. A crypto wallet and gateway to blockchain apps available at, Accessed on 15 Feb 2020.

  22. Buccafurri F, Cecilia L, Lorenzo M (2020) Smart-contract based access control on distributed information in a smart-city scenario. DLT@ITASEC

  23. IPFS powers the Distributed Web available at, Accessed on 25 Feb 2020.

  24. Dillenberger DN et al (2019) Blockchain analytics and artificial intelligence. IBM J Res Dev 63(2/3):5:1-5:14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Benhamouda F, Halevi S, Halevi T (2018) Supporting private data on hyperledger fabric with secure multiparty computation. In: 2018 IEEE international conference on cloud engineering (IC2E), Orlando, pp. 357–363,

  26. Khan C, Lewis A, Rutland E, Wan C, Rutter K, Thompson C (2017) A distributed-ledger consortium model for collaborative innovation. Computer 50(9):29–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Wang Y, Hsieh C, Li C (2020) Research and analysis on the distributed database of blockchain and non-blockchain. In: 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA), Chengdu, China, 2020, pp. 307–313

  28. Korotkyi I, Sachov S (2019) Hardware accelerators for IOTA Cryptocurrency. In: 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Electronics and Nanotechnology (ELNANO), Kyiv, Ukraine, pp. 832–837,

  29. Nyaletey E, Parizi RM, Zhang Q, Choo KR (2020) BlockIPFS—blockchain-enabled interplanetary file system for forensic and trusted data traceability. In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain), Atlanta, GA, USA, 2019, pp. 18–25.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anupam Tiwari.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tiwari, A., Batra, U. IPFS enabled blockchain for smart cities. Int. j. inf. tecnol. 13, 201–211 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: