A Study on Aerosol Spray Characteristics of Different Size Atomizers

Abstract

In this study, the variations of spray characteristics are tested with air-assisted siphon type different size liquid atomizers. The spray characteristics are analyzed considering three atomizers having the same inlet diameter, with different constricted areas and exit diameters for the flow rates of 42, 57, and 71l pm. Three different mixtures of Oleic Acid with Ethanol, and three different mixtures of Di-Octyl Phthalate (DOP) with Ethanol are employed as working fluids along with the six different suction heights. Experimental outcomes show that, for the same flow rates, solution, and suction height, the droplet size changes by varying the diameter of the constricted area and exit area. The change of any area in atomizer changes the level of turbulence in flow that results in the variation of droplet size and its distribution. The increasing flow rate also assists in increasing the droplet size. Since the droplet size distribution decreases with the increasing viscosity, the use of DOP and Ethanol mixture increases the droplet size as it is more viscous than the Oleic Acid and Ethanol mixture. It is also noticed that at a constant airflow rate, Number Median Aerodynamic Diameter (NMAD), and liquid consumption rate are inversely proportional, whereas the Geometrical Standard Deviation (GSD) and Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) is directly proportional to the suction height.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17

Data Availability

all the data can be provided upon the request of the reviewers.

References

  1. Akhter MS (1999) Design, development and performance studies on an improved virtual impactor type aerosol generation system. Phd Thesis, IIT, Kharagpur, India.

  2. Ashgriz N, Yarin A (2011) Capillary instability of free liquid jets. Handbook of atomization and sprays. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–53

    Google Scholar 

  3. Chen SK, Lefebvre AH (1994) Spray cone angles of effervescent atomizers. Atomization Sprays 4(3).

  4. Cloupeau M, Prunet-Foch B (1994) Electrohydrodynamic spraying functioning modes: a critical review. J Aerosol Sci 25(6):1021–1036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Das BK, Hoque N, Mandal S, Pal TK, Raihan MA (2017) A techno-economic feasibility of a stand-alone hybrid power generation for remote area application in Bangladesh. Energy 134:775–788

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Gao Y, Deng J, Li C, Dang F, Liao Z, Wu Z, Li L (2009) Experimental study of the spray characteristics of biodiesel based on inedible oil. Biotechnol Adv 27(5):616–624

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Hewitt AJ (2008) Spray optimization through application and liquid physical property variables–I. Environmentalist 28(1):25–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hinds WC (2012) Aerosol technology: properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne particles. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  9. Jayasinghe S, Edirisinghe M, Wang D (2004) Controlled deposition of nanoparticle clusters by electrohydrodynamic atomization. Nanotechnology 15(11):1519

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Jedelsky, J., Jicha, M., & Slama, J. (2004). Characteristics and behaviour of multi-hole effervescent atomizers. Paper presented at the Proc ILASS-Europe.

  11. Jedelsky J, Landsmann M, Jicha M, Kuritka I (2008) Effervescent atomizer: influence of the operation conditions and internal geometry on spray structure; study using PIV-PLIF. Proc. ILASS

  12. Jiang C, Xu H, Srivastava D, Ma X, Dearn K, Cracknell R, Krueger-Venus J (2017) Effect of fuel injector deposit on spray characteristics, gaseous emissions and particulate matter in a gasoline direct injection engine. Appl Energy 203:390–402

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kim D, Martz J, Violi A (2016) Effects of fuel physical properties on direct injection spray and ignition behavior. Fuel 180:481–496

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Lefebvre AH (1989) Atomization and sprays. Hemisphere Pub. Corp, New York, p 1989

    Google Scholar 

  15. Mitchell J, Snelling K, Stone R (1987) Improvements to the vibrating orifice aerosol generator. J Aerosol Sci 18(3):231–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Panchagnula MV, Sojka PE (1999) Spatial droplet velocity and size profiles in effervescent atomizer-produced sprays. Fuel 78(6):729–741

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Patterson, M. A., & Reitz, R. D. (1998). Modeling the effects of fuel spray characteristics on diesel engine combustion and emission (0148–7191)

  18. Payri F, Bermudez V, Payri R, Salvador F (2004) The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles. Fuel 83(4):419–431

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Peters TM, Chein H, Lundgren DA, Keady PB (1993) Comparison and combination of aerosol size distributions measured with a low pressure impactor, differential mobility particle sizer, electrical aerosol analyzer, and aerodynamic particle sizer. Aerosol Sci Technol 19(3):396–405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Rodney C (2004) Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries, 380. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  21. ScienceDaily (2020). Density. sciencedaily.com. https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/density.htm#:~:text=Density%2520is%2520a%2520measure%2520of%2520mass%2520per%2520volume.,substance%2520(such%2520as%2520water). Accessed July 10 2020

  22. Sutherland J, Sojka PE, Plesniak MW (1997) Ligament-controlled effervescent atomization. Atomization and Sprays, 7(4).

  23. Toolbox, E. (2020). Ethanol - density and specific weight. The Engineering Toolbox. https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ethanol-ethyl-alcohol-density-specific-weight-temperature-pressure-d_2028.html Accessed July 10 2020.

  24. Vanderpool R, Lundgren D, Kerch P (1990) Design and calibration of an in-stack low-pressure impactor. Aerosol Sci Technol 12(2):215–224

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Zhang XS, Li LG, Deng J, Huang CJ, Yu S (2007) An experimental study of Bio-diesel spray characteristics. Transactions of CSICE, 2, 012

Download references

Acknowledgments

The support of the Heat Engine Laboratory of Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology (RUET), Rajshahi, Bangladesh, is gratefully acknowledged; in particular, authors acknowledge the Department of Mechanical Engineering, RUET, for required support.

Funding

This work was partially funded by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (RUET), Rajshahi, Bangladesh, and the rest part of the money was carried by the first and fourth authors.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MRIS and MMR have set up the experiment and collected the data. MSR has analyzed the data and helped in manuscript writing. SM has reviewed the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. R. I. Sarker.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The contents of this article are not submitted or published anywhere else, and there is no conflict of interest in this whole study. All the authors are willingly submitting this work for their journal.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sarker, M.R.I., Rahman, M.S., Mandal, S. et al. A Study on Aerosol Spray Characteristics of Different Size Atomizers. Aerosol Sci Eng 4, 306–319 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41810-020-00076-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Atomizer
  • Geometrical standard deviation (GSD)
  • Number median aerodynamic diameter (NMAD)
  • Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)