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Edible Coating and Edible Film as Food Packaging Material: A Review

Abstract

This review is an attempt to describe the utility of edible films and edible coatings used in food packaging. We know that by the increasing load of the non-biodegradable materials on the environment harming our mother earth. Hence, there comes an urgent need to develop the edible packing and films. These natural films and coating are extracted from plants and animals in the form of polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins. The principle components for producing edible/biodegradable films, are film forming biopolymers which includes the carbohydrates, proteins, solubilizing medium [water, ethanol, etc.] and plasticizers, etc. The optional components interacts with each other by the cross-linking agents, colorants, surface active agents or lipid-based materials. Hence, they can improve the properties of the films. The major advantage of the use of such components occurs in the form of properties viz. moisture resistance, water-soluble nature, gelling properties, good thermal and mechanical properties, antimicrobial activity, heat-based sealing, flexible colorless, etc. With the advances in technology, the market cap of these types of packaging are also increasing. It is predicted that due to their environmental beneficial concerns, they might replace the existing materials very soon and therefore, this seem to be the active area of research. Hence, the application of edible films and coating will benefit the society due to their substitute of the existing and conventional materials. In this direction, the lignocellulose-based agro-wastes can be used as alternative packaging material. Here, the different parts of plant such as stem, leaf, fruit, seed, etc. and plant such as rice straw, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, canola oilseed, etc. and be used as Green technology food packaging products.

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Abbreviations

BSM:

Balangu seed mucilage

HPMC:

Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

MC:

Methylcellulose

CMC:

Carboxymethyl cellulose

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

UV light:

Ultra violet light

Ca(OH)2 :

Calcium hydroxide

NaOH:

Sodium hydroxide

RH:

Relative humidity

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Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Department of Biotechnology, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Sonipat-131039, Haryana, India, for providing necessary facilities during work.

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Correspondence to Dharmender Kumar.

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Chhikara, S., Kumar, D. Edible Coating and Edible Film as Food Packaging Material: A Review. J Package Technol Res 6, 1–10 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41783-021-00129-w

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Keywords

  • Biodegradable packaging
  • Edible packaging
  • Cross-linking agents
  • Wet methods
  • Dry methods