Skip to main content

Production of Packaging and Value Added Material from Bamboo Biomass


The bamboo biomass is widely available in tropical countries and is actually being used for papermaking on a commercial scale in other countries. Its comparable cellulosic content to wood resources in the pulp and paper industry corresponds to its suitability as a substitute in view to reduce our dependency on wood and in line with sustainability. Accordingly, the study investigated the production of paper from the non-wood fibre for subsequent uses hinged on its physical and mechanical characteristics. It also targets paper waste since the latter was employed in different mixing ratios (20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20). Value added materials, namely envelopes, paper bags and holders were produced in order to open new arenas for the Mauritian fibre industry. Soda process was employed as the chemical pulping process. The optimum cooking conditions, giving rise to the highest pulp yield were found to be 16% w/v NaOH and a cooking time of 2 h at 90 °C. The thickness of the formed sheets was between 0.376 mm and 0.593 mm. Paper made from 100% bamboo was found to be most resistant to soil degradation. The highest bursting index was obtained from 80% bamboo sheet, amounting to 1.86kPam2/g. Sheets constituting of 20% and 40% bamboo showed favourable results to be used as printing materials and were observed to be most resistant to abrasion, requiring 40 and 26 turns, respectively. The minimum water absorbency rate of sheets derived from 80 and 100% bamboo connotes to their use as absorbents. The crease recovery angles were found to be within 27.5° to 63.8°, implying the application of 100%, 80% and 60% bamboo mix in the manufacture of envelopes and paper bags.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14


  1. Ahmed S, Halla AM, Ahmed SF (2018) Biodegradation of Different Types of Paper in a Compost Environment. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technology, March 30–31, Chittagong, Bangladesh

  2. Area MA, Cheradame H (2011) Paper aging and degradation: recent findings and research methods. BioResources 6(4):5307–5337

    Google Scholar 

  3. BIOIS (BIO Intelligence Service) (2012) Options to improve the biodegradability requirements in the packaging directive, Final report. Prepared for DG Environment-European Commission

  4. Brink M (2008) Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Ex J.C.Wendl. In: Louppe D, Oteng-Amoako AA, Brink M (Eds) PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands

  5. Chang F, Wang E, Perng Y, Chen C (2013) Effect of bamboo age on the pulping properties of Bambusa Stenostachya Hackel. Cellulose Chem Technol 47(3–4):285–293

    Google Scholar 

  6. Chen C, Duan C, Li J, Liu Y, Ma X, Zheng L, Stavik J, NI, Y. (2016) Cellulose (dissolving pulp) manufacturing processes and properties: A mini-review. BioResources 11(2):5553–5564

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Chin K, Ibrahim S, Hakeem K, H’Ng P, Lee S, Mohd Lila M (2017) Bioenergy production from bamboo: potential source from Malaysia’s perspective. BioResources 12(3):6844–6867

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. EPN (Environmental Paper Network) (2018) The State of the Global Paper Industry, Shifting seas: New Challenges and Opportunities for Forest, People and the Climate

  9. Ezeudu O, Agunwamba J, Ezeasor I, Madu C (2019) Sustainable production and consumption of paper and paper products in Nigeria: a review. Resources 8(1):53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations) (2018) Forestry Production and Trade

  11. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations) (2016) Global Forest Products – Facts and Figures

  12. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations), 2019

  13. Gondar M (2012) Determination of moisture content of recovered paper bales. Thesis (MSc.) Tomas Bata University, Zlin

  14. Gülsoy S, Hürfikir Z, Turgut B (2016) Dövülmüş ve dövülmemiş kraft hamurlarının kağıt özellikleri üzerine azalan gramajın etkileri. Turkish Journal of Forestry Türkiye Ormancılık Dergisi 17(1)

  15. Hakeem K, Ibrahim S, Ibrahim F, Tombuloglu H (2015) Bamboo biomass: various studies and potential applications for value-added products. Agricultural Biomass Based Potential Materials, pp. 231–243

  16. Hussain M, Huq M, Rahman S, Ahmed Z (2002) Estimation of lignin in jute by titration method. Pak J Biol Sci 5(5):521–522

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. IEA (International Energy Agency) (2001) Technical Report-Characterisation of MSW for Combustion Systems

  18. IEA (2015) ETSAP (Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme) Pulp and Paper Industry.

  19. Jahan MS (2015) Pulping and Papermaking Potential of Bamboo and Trema Orientalis Chips Mixture. XIV World Forestry Congress, at Durban, South Africa

  20. Jahan MS, Gunter BG, Rahman AFM (2009) Substituting Wood with Non wood Fibers in Papermaking: A Win-Win Solution for Bangladesh, Bangladesh Development Research Working Paper Series

  21. Jeetah P, Golaup N, Buddynauth K (2015) Production of cardboard from waste rice husk. J Environ Chem Eng 3(1):52–59

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Jonsson E (2011) A comparison of absorption methods. Thesis (MSc.), The Swedish School of Textiles. [online] Available from: [Accessed 28 Dec. 2019]

  23. Kamoga O, Byaruhanga J, Kirabira J (2013) A review on pulp manufacture from non wood plant materials. Int J Chem Eng Applic 4:144–148

    Google Scholar 

  24. Karlsson H (2010) Strength properties of paper produced from softwood kraft pulp. Thesis, Karlstad University

  25. Khan K (2011) Development and evaluation of a puncture strength test method for sterilization paper. Thesis (MSc.), Karlstads University

  26. Ko Y, Lee J, Kim H, Sung Y (2016) The fundamental absorbency mechanisms of hygiene paper. J Korea Techn Assoc Pulp Paper Industry 48(5):85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Manimaran DS, Nadaraja KR, Vellu JP, Francisco V, Kanesen K, Zamri Y (2016) Production of biodegradable plastic from banana peel. J Petrochem Eng 1(1):1–7

    Google Scholar 

  28. Özdil N, Özçelik G, Mengüç, GS (2012) Abrasion Resistance of Materials, Chapter 7: Analysis of Abrasion Characteristics in Textiles

  29. Penttinen P (2012) The reference measurements of the paper laboratory. Thesis, Saimaa University of Applied Sciences, Imatra

  30. Ribeiro L, Aguiar L, Nogueira E, Dias J, Beijo L (2019) Influence of section and moisture content on the tensile strength parallel to fibers of bamboo culms woody material. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Risdianto H (2017) International Workshop on Non-wood Pulping and Papermaking Technology. Centre for pulp and paper, Indonesia

  32. Segura T, Dos Santos J, Sarto C, Da Silva F (2016) Effect of kappa number variation on modified pulping of eucalyptus. BioResources 11(4):9842–9855

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Smithers (2017) Water Absorbency. [online] Available from:

  34. Sridach W (2010) The environmentally benign pulping process of non-wood fibers. J Sci Technol 17(2):105–123

    Google Scholar 

  35. STERIS (2019) Rub and Abrasion Testing. [online] Available from:

  36. Sucipta M, Putra Negara D, Tirta Nindhia T, Surata I (2017) Characteristics of Ampel bamboo as a biomass energy source potential in Bali. IOP Conference Ser Mater Sci Eng 201:012032

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Suraj M, Khan A (2015) Environmental impact of paper industry. Int J Eng Res Technol 3(20):1–3

    Google Scholar 

  38. TAPPI T205 SP-02 (2006) Forming handsheets for physical tests of pulp.

  39. TAPPI T211 OM-02 (2002) Ash in wood, pulp, paper and paperboard: combustion at 525°C [online] Available from:

  40. TAPPI T220 SP-01 (2001) Physical testing of pulp handsheets. [online] Available from:

  41. TAPPI T403 OM-97 (1997) Bursting strength of paper. [online] Available from:

  42. TAPPI T410 OM-08 (2013) Grammage of paper and paperboard. [online] Available from:

  43. TAPPI T411 OM-97 (1997) Thickness (caliper) of paper, paperboard, and combined board. [online] Available from:

  44. TAPPI T494 OM-01 (2006) Tensile properties of paper and paperboard (using constant rate of elongation apparatus). [online] Available from:

  45. TAPPI T511 OM-02 (2006) Folding endurance of paper (MIT tester). [online] Available from:

  46. TAPPI T550 OM-08 (2013) Determination of equilibrium moisture in pulp, paper and paperboard for chemical analysis. [online] Available from:

  47. TAPPI T831 OM-93 (1993) Water absorption of corrugating medium: water drop penetration test. [online] Available from:

  48. TAPPI T236 OM-99 (1999) Kappa number of pulp. [online] Available from:

  49. TMI (Testing Machine Inc) (2019). Crease & Board Stiffness. [online] Available from:

  50. UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) (2009) Bamboo cultivation manual- guidelines for cultivating 82thiopian highland bamboo

  51. van Soest P, Robertson J, Lewis B (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 74(10):3583–3597

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Ververis C, Georghiou K, Christodoulakis N, Santas P, Santas R (2004) Fiber dimensions, lignin and cellulose content of various plant materials and their suitability for paper production. Ind Crops Prod 19(3):245–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Wahab R, Mustafa M, Salam M, Sudin M, Samsi H, Rasat M (2013) Chemical composition of four cultivated Tropical Bamboo in Genus Gigantochloa. J Agricul Sci 5(8):66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Wakchaure MR, Kute SY (2012) Effect of moisture content on physical and mechanical properties of bamboo. Asian J Civil Eng 13(6):753–763

    Google Scholar 

  55. Zhang B, Guan Y, Bian J, Peng F, Ren J, Yao C, Sun R (2016) Structure of hemicelluloses upon maturation of bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) culms. Cellulose Chem Technol 50(2):189–198

    Google Scholar 

Download references


No research funding has been received for this work.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeetah Pratima.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pratima, J., Purrahoo, A. Production of Packaging and Value Added Material from Bamboo Biomass. J Package Technol Res 6, 33–47 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Papermaking
  • Bamboo
  • Admixtures
  • Mechanical characteristics
  • Printing materials