Advertisement

Thermal Analysis of Paper Board Packaging with Phase Change Material: A Numerical Study

  • Alireza Mahdavi NejadEmail author
Review Paper
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

Phase change materials (PCM) absorb, store, and release thermal energy by changing phase, usually between solid and liquid, to maintain a regulated temperature. Compared with conventional sensible heat storage materials, PCMs can absorb or release large amount of heat without a significant change in temperature until the phase change process is complete. There are many potential applications of PCMs, including energy storage system, electronic/battery cooling, thermal management in buildings, and temperature controlled packaging. This study fundamentally explores the effect of the presence of PCMs on the heat transfer characteristics of packaging wall. The presence of PCM is studied in two different configurations: a layer of PCM embedded in the center of a paper board, and uniformly distributed PCM particles within a paper board. The numerical results presented here are based on a transient conjugate heat transfer analysis with natural convection present on the both sides of the packaging wall. A parametric study is performed on the PCM layer thickness to determine the impact of PCM on isolating the package interior temperature from ambient conditions over an extended time. The numerical results show significant reduction in the transfer of heat from the exterior to the interior of the packaging wall in the presence of PCM. This extends the time for the interior temperature to equalize with the exterior temperature under the operating conditions considered in this study.

Keywords

Smart packaging PCM Conjugate heat transfer Natural convection Porous paper board 

List of Symbols

\(c_\mathrm{p}\)

Specific heat at constant pressure (J/kg K)

k

Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

L

Package horizontal length (m)

n

Unit vector in outward normal direction

P

Pressure (Pa)

\(q''\)

Heat flux (W/m\(^2\))

s

Saturation; volume of liquid per volume of voids

t

Time (s)

T

Temperature (\(^\circ C\))

u

x-Component of velocity (m/s)

v

y-Component of velocity (m/s)

x

Horizontal Cartesian coordinate (m)

y

Vertical Cartesian coordinate (m)

Greek Symbols

\(\delta\)

Thickness (mm)

\(\rho\)

Density (kg/m\(^3\))

\(\nu\)

Kinematic viscosity (m\(^2\)/s)

\(\beta\)

Thermal expansion coefficient (\(1/^\circ\)C)

\(\alpha\)

Thermal diffusivity (m\(^2\)/s)

\(\varepsilon\)

Paper board porosity

\(\phi\)

Volumetric fraction coefficient of PCM

Subscripts

a

Air

amb

Ambient

eff

Effective

f

Fluid

F

Fiber

int

Initial

l

Liquid

m

Mean

ref

Reference

s

Solid

w

Water

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Center for Advanced Research in Drying (CARD), an NSF Industry University Cooperative Research Center, jointly located at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

References

  1. 1.
    Lockhartr HE (1997) A paradigm for packaging. Packag Technol Sci 10:237–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Robertson GL (2013) Food packaging principles and practice. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coles R, McDowell D, Kirwan MJ (2003) Food packaging technology. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kester JJ, Fennema OR (1986) Edible films and coatings: a review. Food Technol 48:47–59Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krochtal JM (1997) Edible protein films and coatings. In: Damodaran S, Paraf A (eds) Food proteins and their applications. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 529–549Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Han JH, Ho CHL, Rodrigues ET (2005) Intelligent packaging. In: Han JH (ed) Innovations in food packaging, chapter 9. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 138–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robertson G (1993) Food packaging. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Labuza TP, Breene WM (1989) Applicatins of active packaging for improvement of shelf-life and nutritional quality of fresh and extended shelf-life foods. Food Process Preserv 13:252–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rooney ML (2005) Introduction to active food packaging technologies. In: Han JH (ed) Innovations in food packaging, chapter 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goel M, Roy S, Sengupta S (1994) Laminar forced convection heat transfer in microencapsulated phase change material suspension. Int J Heat Mass Transf 37:593–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Inaba H (2004) Melting heat transfer characteristics of microencapsulated phase change material slurries with plural microcapsules having different diameters. ASME J Heat Transf 126:558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roy SK, Sengupta S (1991) An evaluation of phase change microcapsules for use in enhanced heat transfer fluids. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 18:495–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sabbah R, Seyed-Yagoobi J, Al-Hallaj S (2011) Heat transfer characteristics of liquid flow with micro-encapsulated phase change material: numerical study. ASME J Heat Transf 133:121702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sabbah R, Seyed-Yagoobi J, Al-Hallaj S (2012) Heat transfer characteristics of liquid flow with micro-encapsulated phase change material: experimental study. ASME J Heat Transf 134:082503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sabbah R, Seyed-Yagoobi J, Al-Hallaj S (2012) Natural convection with micro-encapsulated phase change material. ASME J Heat Transf 134:082503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kondle S, Alvarado JL, Marsh C (2013) Laminar flow forced convection heat transfer behavior of a phase change material fluid in microchannels. ASME J Heat Transf 135:052801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khakpour Y, Seyed-Yagoobi J (2014) Evaporating liquid film flow in the presence of micro-encapsulated phase change materials: a numerical study. ASME J Heat Transf 137:021501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rajabifar B, Seyf HR, Zhang YY, Khanna SK (2016) Evaporating liquid film flow in the presence of micro-encapsulated phase change materials: a numerical study. ASME J Heat Transf 138Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Assensio MC, Seyed-Yagoobi J (1993) Simulation of paper-drying systems with incorporation of an experimental drum/paper thermal contact conductance relationship. J Energy Resour Technol 115(4):291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bejan A (2013) Convection heat transfer, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Griebel M, Dornseifer T, Neunhoeffe T (1998) Numerical simulation in fluid dynamics, a practical introduction. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), PhiladelphiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shu CW, Osher S (1988) Efficient implementation of essentially non-oscillatory shock capturing schemes. J Comput Phys 77:439–471MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Institute of Packaging 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Interdisciplinary EngineeringWentworth Institute of TechnologyBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations