The effect of cement raw mix waste dust on porcelain tile properties
- 50 Downloads
Nowadays, the recycling of industrial waste is one of the priority issues. Recycling studies related with reducing the negative effects of wastes on the environment are becoming increasingly important. It was believed that nothing was beyond recycling, and manufacturers should take greater responsibility for their part in the waste economy to apply cyclical solutions to an expanding breadth of new product categories. Cement raw mix contains silicate, alumina, iron oxide, and limestone. Raw mix contains SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, and K2O in higher ratio. The high presence of these oxides in the raw mix powder makes raw powder an alternative source of raw material for porcelain tile compositions. In this study, raw mix dust was used instead of sodium feldspar in a standard porcelain tile composition, at a rate of 1, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. The specimens were sintered at 1210 °C. Flexural strength, firing shrinkage, water absorption, porosity, and other technological properties were investigated. It has been determined that the body containing 1% of the raw mix powder improved its physical and mechanical properties compared to the standard body.
KeywordsCement raw mix Porcelain tile Recycling Porosity
This study is supported by Kirikkale University Coordination Unit for Scientific Research Projects with project number 2015/079.
We would like to thank the Ceramics Research Center and Kale Ceramic R&D Center for their support in this work.
- 1.http://www.tcma.org.tr/index.php?page=icerikgoster&menuID=54, (date of access 16.06.2017)
- 2.Munlafalıoğlu İ, Çimento sektöründe çevre kirliliği ve yasal çerçeve, http://readgur.com/doc/530284/%C3%A7imento-sekt%C3%B6r%C3%BCnde-%C3%A7evre-kirlili%C4%9Fi-ve-yasal-%C3%A7er%C3%A7eve, (date of access 16.06.2017)
- 4.Bayer Ozturk, Z., Atay, B., Çakı, M., Ay, N.: An investigation of color development by means of the factorial design in wall tile glazes with ferrochromium fly ash. Indian J. Eng. Mater. Sci. 22, 215–224 (2015)Google Scholar
- 5.Bayer Ozturk, Z., Ay, N.: The effect of ferrochromium fly ash as a pigment on wall tile glaze. Adv. Sci. Technol. 68, 213–218 (2010). https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.68.213 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Afolabi, T.T.D., Hanim, M.A.A., Norkhairunnisa, M., Sobri, S., Calin, R., Ismarrubie, Z.N.: Effect of agro-waste pore formers on the microstructure, hardness, and tensile properties of porous alumina ceramics. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 1–12 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1111/ijac.12874
- 8.Afolabi, T.T.D., Hanim, M.A.A., Norkhairunnisa, M., Sobri, S., Calin, R., Ismarrubie, Z.N.: Investigating the effect of porosity level and pore former type on the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of agro-waste shaped porous alumina ceramics. Ceram. Int. 43, 8743–8754 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Pehlivanlı, Z., Calin, R., Uzun, I.: Effect of moisture and temperature on thermal conductivity of G2/04 class autoclaved aerated concrete. Asian J. Chem. 22(5), 4104–4110 (2010)Google Scholar
- 14.Aydın, T., Kara, A.: Effect of spodumene addition on pyroplastic deformation of porcelain stoneware. J. Ceram. Process. Res. 15(6), 486–491 (2014)Google Scholar
- 15.Zanelli, C., Raimondo, M., Dondi, M., Guarini, G.: Sintering mechanism of porcelain stoneware tiles, Qualicer 2004, I, 247–250, Castellon, Spain, (2004)Google Scholar
- 18.Fluegel, A.: Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach. Glass Technol. Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A. 48(1), 13–30 (2007)Google Scholar
- 20.Souza A.J., Pinheiro B.C.A., Holanda J.N.F.: Sintering behavior of vitrified ceramic tiles incorporated with petroleum waste. Sintering Applications, InTech, 2013, https://doi.org/10.5772/53256