Advertisement

Utlization of rheological parameters for the prediction of β-TCP suspension suitability to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffold through foam replication method

  • Golshan Saba
  • Saeed Hesaraki
  • Mahmoud Hajisafari
Research
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, aqueous suspensions of betatricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) containing various concentrations (0–0.8%, in w/w, based on the total weight of β-TCP constituent) of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared. The rheological properties of the suspensions, including cohesion, flowability, yield point, and recovery percentage, were evaluated. The shear stress-shear rate curve demonstrated that all suspensions exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior, and thus, in all slurries, viscosity decreased as the shear rate was increased. The lack of fluctuations in shear stress-shear rate curves resulted in improvement of suspension stability and a more controlled sedimentation upon addition of CMC. The addition of 0.8% CMC to the β-TCP slurry resulted in a maximum infinite shear viscosity, which means that this slurry can exhibit the best cohesiveness and wall thickness compared to other suspensions. Moreover, upon the increase of CMC concentration from 0.4%, the yield point of the β-TCP slurry was decreased, i.e., the suspension has a lower penetration force. The results showed that all suspensions were thixotropic in nature; however, the percentage of recovery decreased with increasing the CMC concentration, since it facilitates the movement of the slurry through the bulk of the template. Overall, the results suggest that β-TCP slurry containing 0.8% of CMC provides optimum characteristics for coating suspension on the polyurethane sponge.

Keywords

Rheology Scaffold Tricalcium phosphate Bone substitute Foam replication 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the staff of the biomaterials laboratory in Materials and Energy Research Center for their help in this research.

References

  1. 1.
    Guarino, V., Causa, F., Ambrosio, L.: Bioactive scaffolds for bone and ligament tissue. Expert Rev. Med. Devices. 4, 405–418 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hesaraki, S., Safari, M., Shokrgozar, M.A.: Composite bone substitute materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate and magnesium-containing sol-gel derived bioactive glass. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20, 2011–2017 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kondo, N., Ogose, A., Tokunaga, K., Ito, T., Arai, K., Kudo, N., et al.: Bone formation and resorption of highly purified β-tricalcium phosphate in the rat femoral condyle. Biomaterials. 26, 5600–5608 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tanaka, T., Kumagae, Y., Saito, M., Chazono, M., Komaki, H., Kikuchi, T., Kitasato, S., Marumo, K.: Bone formation and resorption in patients after implantation of beta-tricalcium phosphate blocks with 60% and 75% porosity in opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 86, 453–459 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu, B., Lun, M.S.C.D.X.: Current application of β-tricalcium phosphate composites in orthopaedics. Orthop. Surg. 4, 139–144 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scheffler, M., Colombo, P.: Cellular Ceramics: Structure, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schwartzwalder K, Somers H, Somers AV.: Method of making porous ceramic articles. U.S. Patent 3090094 (1963)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu, C., Liu, H., Yang, H., Yang, L.: A green biocompatible fabrication of highly porous functional ceramics with high strength and controllable pore structures. Mater. Sci. Technol. 32, 729–732 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ishizaki, K., Komarneni, S., Nanko, M.: Porous materials: process technology and applications. Applications of Porous Materials, pp. 181–201. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1998)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huang, K., Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Li, S., Li, Y., Sang, S.: Effects of foaming temperature on the preparation and microstructure of alumina foams. Mater. Lett. 165, 19–21 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Montanaro, L., Jorand, Y., Fantozzi, G., Negro, A.: Ceramic foams by powder processing. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 18, 1339–1350 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fukasawa, T., Deng, Z.Y., Ando, M.: Pore structure of porous ceramics synthesized from water-based slurry by freeze-dry process. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 36, 2523–2527 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tang, F., Fudouzi, H., Sakka, Y.: Fabrication of macroporous alumina with tailored porosity. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86, 2050–2054 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saggio-Woyaansky, J., Scottetal, C.E.: Processing of porous ceramics. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 71, 1674–1682 (1992)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goudouria, M., Theodosogloub, E., Kontonasakic, E., Willa, J., Chrissafisd, K., Koidisc, P., Paraskevopoulosd, K.M., Boccaccinia, A.R.: Development of highly porous scaffolds based on bioactive silicates for dental tissue engineering. Mater. Res. Bull. 49, 399–404 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wong, W.Y., Ahmad Fauzi, M.N., Othman, R.: Sintering of beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold using polyurethane template. Key Eng. Mater. 694, 94–98 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fu, Q., Saiz, E., Rahaman, M.N., Tomsia, A.P.: Bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future perspectives. Mater. Sci. Eng. C. 31, 1245–1256 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saiz, E., Gremillard, L., Menendez, G., et al.: Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Mater. Sci. Eng. C Biomim. Supramol. Syst. 27, 546–550 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Padilla, S., Sanchez-Salcedo, S., Vallet-Regi, M.: Bioactive glass as precursor of designed-architecture scaffolds for tissue engineering. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A. 81, 224–232 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Santos, J.D., Knowles, J.C., Reis, R.L., Monteiro, F.J., Hastings, G.W.: Microstructural characterization of glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites. Biomaterials. 15, 5–10 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ni, S., Chang, J., Chou, L.: A novel bioactive porous CaSiO3 scaffold for bone tissue engineering. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 76, 196–205 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hesaraki, S.: Feasibility of alumina and alumina-silica nanoparticles to fabricate strengthened betatricalcium phosphate scaffold with improved biological responses. Ceram. Int. 42, 7593–7604 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nie, L., Suo, J., Zou, P., Feng, S.: Preparation and Properties of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate ScaffoldsMultiply Coated with HA/PLLA Nanocomposites for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications. Article ID 213549Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gu, Y., Wang, G., Zhang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, C., Liu, X., Rahaman, M.N., Huang, W., Pan, H.: Biodegradable borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with a trabecular microstructure for bone repair. Mater. Sci. Eng. C Mater. Biol. Appl. 36, 294–300 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Voigt, C., Aneziris, C., Hubalkov, J.: Rheological characterization of slurries for the preparation of alumina foams via replica technique. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1460–1463 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Granados, L., Moreno, V., Vieira, L.E., Escobar, J.A., Hotza, D., Novaes De Oliveira, A.P., Rodrigues Neto, J.B.: Alumina/copper foams produced by replica using a double impregnation process. Adv. Appl. Ceram. 116, 85–91 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jamaludin, A.R., Kasima, S.R., Ismail, A.K., Abdullah, M.Z., Ahmad, Z.A.: The effect of sago as binder in the fabrication of alumina foam through the polymeric sponge replication technique. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35, 1905–1914 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gomez, S.Y., Alvarez, O.A., Escobar, J.A., Rodrigues Neto, J.B., Rambo, C.R., Hotza, D.: Relationship between rheological behavior and final structure of Al2O3 and YSZ foams produced by replica. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2012, 1–9 (2012)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Amirjan, M., Khorsand, H.: Processing and properties of Al-based powder suspension/slurry: a comparison study of aqueous binder systems, stability and film uniformity. Powder Technol. 254, 12–21 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhou, D., Tanga, Y., Zhang, N., Zhang, J., Liu, D.: Effect of various cellulose derivatives on the properties of pigment coatings: a comparative study. Nanomater. Biostruct. 9, 305–315 (2014)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Conceicao, S.I., Velho, J., Ferreira, J.M.F.: Influence of carboxymethyl cellulose on rheological behaviour of precipitated calcium carbonate suspensions. Rheology. 4, 29–38 (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hesaraki, S., Zamanian, A., Moztarzadeh, F.: Effect of adding sodium hexametaphosphate liquefier on basic properties of calcium phosphate cements. Biomed. Mater. Res. 88, 314–321 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bonn, D., Paredes, J., Denn, M.M., Berthier, L., Divoux, T., Manneville, S.: Yield stress materials in soft condensed matter. Phys. Condens. Matter. (2015)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barnes, H.A., Hutton, J.F., Walters, K.: An Introduction to Rheology. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam (1989)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mezger, T.G.: The rheology handbook. Vincentz Network, Hannover (2011)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Condon, J.B.: Surface area and porosity determination by physisorption measurements and theory, pp. 8–13. Elsevier, Amsterdan, Chapter 1 (2006)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sarraf, H., Skarpova, L., Havrda, J., Bartovska, L., Maryska, M., Hulinsky, V., Akbari, H., Sadr, A.: Evaluation of the effect of solid loadings on rheological properties of highly concentrated biocompatible nanoparticle suspensions. Nanotechnol. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 3(1), 10 (2016)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Soy, U., Demir, A., Caliskan, F.: Effect of bentonite addition on fabrication of reticulated porous sic ceramics for liquid metal infiltration. Ceram. Int. 37, 15–19 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hesaraki, S., Moztarzadeh, F., Sharifi, D.: Formation of interconnected macropores in apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement with the use of an effervescent additive. Biomed. Mater. Res. A. 83, 80–87 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim, J., Lim, D., Kim, Y.H., Young-Hag, K., Lee, M.H., Han, I., Lee, S.J., Yoo, O.S., Kim, H.S., Park, J.C.: A comparative study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds fabricated by solid freeform fabrication and polymer replication method. Int. J. Preci. Eng. Manufac. 12, 695–701 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Australian Ceramic Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Golshan Saba
    • 1
  • Saeed Hesaraki
    • 2
  • Mahmoud Hajisafari
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yazd BranchIslamic Azad UniversityYazdIran
  2. 2.Biomaterials group, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research CenterAlborzIran
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Yazd BranchIslamic Azad UniversityYazdIran

Personalised recommendations