Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 587–599 | Cite as

Utlization of rheological parameters for the prediction of β-TCP suspension suitability to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffold through foam replication method

  • Golshan Saba
  • Saeed Hesaraki
  • Mahmoud Hajisafari


In this study, aqueous suspensions of betatricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) containing various concentrations (0–0.8%, in w/w, based on the total weight of β-TCP constituent) of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared. The rheological properties of the suspensions, including cohesion, flowability, yield point, and recovery percentage, were evaluated. The shear stress-shear rate curve demonstrated that all suspensions exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior, and thus, in all slurries, viscosity decreased as the shear rate was increased. The lack of fluctuations in shear stress-shear rate curves resulted in improvement of suspension stability and a more controlled sedimentation upon addition of CMC. The addition of 0.8% CMC to the β-TCP slurry resulted in a maximum infinite shear viscosity, which means that this slurry can exhibit the best cohesiveness and wall thickness compared to other suspensions. Moreover, upon the increase of CMC concentration from 0.4%, the yield point of the β-TCP slurry was decreased, i.e., the suspension has a lower penetration force. The results showed that all suspensions were thixotropic in nature; however, the percentage of recovery decreased with increasing the CMC concentration, since it facilitates the movement of the slurry through the bulk of the template. Overall, the results suggest that β-TCP slurry containing 0.8% of CMC provides optimum characteristics for coating suspension on the polyurethane sponge.


Rheology Scaffold Tricalcium phosphate Bone substitute Foam replication 



The authors wish to acknowledge the staff of the biomaterials laboratory in Materials and Energy Research Center for their help in this research.


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Copyright information

© Australian Ceramic Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Golshan Saba
    • 1
  • Saeed Hesaraki
    • 2
  • Mahmoud Hajisafari
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yazd BranchIslamic Azad UniversityYazdIran
  2. 2.Biomaterials group, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research CenterAlborzIran
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Yazd BranchIslamic Azad UniversityYazdIran

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