Assessing Land Use–Land Cover Change and Its Impact on Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT Data: A Comparison of Two Urban Areas in India

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal changes in land use and patterns of vegetation and its impacts on land surface temperature (LST) in two Indian cities. Specifically the motivation behind this study is to examine whether a correlation exists between these parameters for the two cities. Indian cities are facing tremendous pressures of rapid urbanization altering the country’s land use patterns. This in turn has significantly altered the country’s land surface temperature over the years. This study investigates the changes in the land use, land cover and surface temperature in two Indian cities of Surat and Bharuch over a period of 2 decades using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS datasets. The study also examines changes in vegetation pattern during this period using a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and investigates the correlation between LST and NDVI. Additionally, the study examines the spatial patterns of LST by mapping the directional profiles of LST. Results of the study reveal that over time both the cities have witnessed a dramatic growth in built-up area, systematic reduction in green space and increase in LST. There is 85% increase in built-up area in Surat in the past 2 decades and 31% increase in built-up area in Bharuch during the same period. At the same time, mean surface temperature in Surat has shown an increase of 2.42 °C per decade while in Bharuch the mean surface temperature has increased by 2.13 °C per decade. Moreover, examination of correlation between LST and NDVI showed a negative relation between the two parameters. Directional profiles showed a continued increase in temperature from 2008 to 2016 from North to South direction Surat indicating an increased urbanization in that direction. Also, new peaks were observed in the profile of Surat for 2008 and 2016 in the north–south direction indicating urban expansion particularly in the southern part of the city. Moreover, substantial growth has taken place in the central part of the city and along the banks of the rivers Tapi and Narmada. This study will be helpful in investigations that address the challenges of urbanization in Surat and Bharuch by assisting local government officials, land management professionals and planners to determine areas where growth must be curbed to avoid further environmental degradation thereby assisting in systematic urban planning practices.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    A megacity is defined by the United Nations as a city which has a population of 10 million or more people. Accordingly, India has three megacities, 40 cities with over a million population and 396 cities with a population between 100,000 and 1 million.

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Mukherjee, F., Singh, D. Assessing Land Use–Land Cover Change and Its Impact on Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT Data: A Comparison of Two Urban Areas in India. Earth Syst Environ 4, 385–407 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-020-00155-9

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Keywords

  • LULC
  • LST
  • NDVI
  • LANDSAT
  • India